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八卦序数 蕴含多少奥秘?

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   常见“八卦序数”大约有如下四类:
   1.乾一、兑二、离三、震四、巽五、坎六、艮七、坤八。
   2.坎一、坤二、震三、巽四、中五、乾六、兑七、艮八、离九。
   3.震一、巽二、离三、坤四、兑五、乾六、坎七、艮八。
   4.坤一、巽二、离三、兑四、中五、艮六、坎七、震八、乾九。

   本文分别探究其原由。

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一、先天八卦序数
    我们都知道先天八卦次序:乾一、兑二、离三、震四、巽五、坎六、艮七、坤八。然而,其排序的原理是什么?这要从八经卦的生成过程说起。

    北宋·邵雍在《皇极经世绪言》卷七中这样讲道:“太极既分,两仪立矣。阳上交于阴,阴下交于阳,四象生矣。阳交于阴,阴交于阳,而生天之四象,刚交于柔,柔交于刚;而生地之四象,八卦相错,而后万物生焉,是故一分为二,二分为四,四分为八…….”

    根据邵雍的说法,下面逐步分析八经卦的生成过程,以及其卦序的排列原理。


太极生两仪

    北宋·周敦颐《太极图说》云:“无极而太极。太极动而生阳,动极而静,静而生阴,静极复动。一动一静,互为其根。分阴分阳,两仪立焉。阳变阴合,而生‘水火木金土’。五气顺布,四时行焉。五行一阴阳也,阴阳一太极也,太极本无极也。”

    太极分而为二,一奇一偶。奇者“⚊”为阳,称作阳仪;偶者“⚋”为阴,称作阴仪。阴仪和阳仪统称两仪。这也是“阴阳”的来由。
 
两仪生四象

    1.两仪相交,四象生成。

    阴极,称老阳“⚌”,第一;

    阳上交阴,称少阴“⚍”,第二;

    阴上交阳,称少阳“⚎”,第三;

    阳极,称老阴“⚏”,第四。

    至此,四象生成。

    2. 四象数值分别为:

    1、2、3、4分别包含9、8、7、6。其原理源自《洛书》的“合十”说。

    事实上,1、9是阳极,乃万数之父;4、6是阴极,乃万数之母。

    老阳一,遇九便为地数十,所以,太阳为九;

    少阴二,遇八便为地数十,所以,少阴为八;

    少阳三,遇七便为地数十,所以,少阳为七;

    老阴四,遇六便为地数十,所以,太阴为六。


    3.查看《河图》,四方有如下规律:

    西方,四九为金,9-4=5;

    东方,三八为木,8-3=5;

    南方,二七为火,7-2=5;

    北方,一六为水,6-1=5。


    4.查看《洛书》,除去中宫5数,八方对称之和,均为10数,因此:

    九,十分之一。一中含九;

    八,十分之二。二中含八;

    七,十分之三。三中含七;

    六,十分之四。四中含六。

 

四象生八卦    

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    先天八卦的次序主要体现了“天道左旋,地道右旋”的天体运行规律。根据八经卦的生成过程,可以看出其次序排列的原由。

    乾卦为父、为阳,为一,顺数:乾“上爻”交一阴为“兑二”,乾“中爻”再交一阴为“离三”,乾“上中爻”再交老阴为“震四”;
    坤卦为母、为阴,为八,逆数:坤“上爻”交老阳为“艮七”,坤“中爻”再交一阳为“坎六”,坤“上中爻”再交老阳为“巽五”。
    至此,先天八卦的次序自然呈现为:乾一、兑二、离三、震四、巽五、坎六、艮七、坤八。
     
    用途:

    此卦序用于梅花易数起卦。

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二、后天八卦序数(1)

    后天八卦序数是依据《洛书》而来。从下边《洛书与后天八卦》图可以看到:坎一、坤二、震三、巽四、中五、乾六、兑七、艮八、离九。
    用途:

    此卦序见于奇门遁甲,以及风水中的三元九运。

三、后天八卦序数(2)

    孔子根据天地自然现象,在《说卦传》第五章中这样说:“帝出乎震,齐乎巽,相见乎离,致役乎坤,说言乎兑,战乎乾,劳乎坎,成言乎艮。”(下图)

    译文:

    帝出乎震:春天来了;太阳从东方升起;(震为东方,一年之始,一日之始,早晨6时)
    齐乎巽:正值春夏,齐乎乎的秧苗茁壮成长;(巽为东南,上午9时)
    相见乎离:正值夏季,庄稼的茂盛映入眼帘;(离为南方,中午12时)
    致役乎坤:夏末秋初,农闲时去做杂活;(坤为西南,午后15时)
    说言乎兑:正值秋季,到了令人喜悦的收获季节;(兑为西方,傍晚18时)
    战乎乾:深秋之时,外出做工;(乾为西北,夜晚21时)  

    劳乎坎:正值冬季,粮食已经收藏起来,外出劳动;(坎为北方,深夜0时)

    成言乎艮:一年的成就全在于此。(艮为东北,清晨3时)

    根据《说卦传》,得出后天八卦数:震一、巽二、离三、坤四、兑五、乾六、坎七、艮八。
    用途:

    此卦序见于风水罗盘。

4.jpg

四、先天八卦,配洛书数

    从上边《洛书与先天八卦》图可以看到:坤一、巽二、离三、兑四、中五、艮六、坎七、震八、乾九。(下图)
    用途:

    此卦序见于三元风水的抽爻换象。

 

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