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道教符箓介绍

玉皇道法术 昌达空间 4092℃ 0评论

       黄帝思想是道家思想的基础。老子(李耳,约前571年-前471年)发扬光大,著《道德经》,创立道家学派。在历史长河中,巫术逐渐融入道家思想,同时,道教也汲取了巫术的精华。两汉时期,佛教传入中国,佛道共融共生,于是,道教神仙体系日臻成熟。
  至于禳灾纳祥的符箓文化,早在西汉之前,便有了符箓的影子。唐宋之后,才出现了今天所看到的符箓。
  符箓是什么呢?

1.jpg

  所谓符,即“符节”。符节起源于2500年前的春秋战国(可能更早),是帝王传达命令、调兵遣将的一种凭证,由金、铜、玉等贵重材料特制而成,上刻铭文,形状多样,并一分为二。其中一半留在中央,另一半发给官吏。当官吏在外执行任务时,出示符节,一则代表身份,二则代表行使权。常见有虎符、龟符等等。一般情况下,传达军令的叫“符”;传达政令的叫“节”。总之,类似于今天的执法证。
  道家引用符之本义,用画符的形式与上天沟通,传达上天的旨令,发挥上天无穷的法力。符,与“福”谐音,取其纳祥之义。
  所谓箓,道教用来记录神仙名属的牒文(官方文书)。通常情况下,牒文画有相关的符图,所以,统称符箓。箓,与“禄”同音,道教亦取其祥也。
  这就是灵符的来源。
  在每一道符中,标有发布敕令的神,执行命令的官吏,所要执行的任务。因此,灵符由符头、符胆、符腹、符脚、符印五部分组成(如下图)
  符头,表示某位神仙的敕令。
  符胆,代表执行命令的官吏。
  符腹,所要执行的任务。
  符脚,落款。
  符印,法印,这包括两项内容,第一,刻有某位神仙名号的印章;第二,刻有施符法师名号的印章。
  打个比方,灵符犹如一张法院《传票》。
  符头:某省某县;
  符胆:人民法院、传票;
  符腹:被传唤人、传唤事由、到庭地点、到庭日期等内容;
  符脚:审判员签名、书记员签名、日期;
  符印:法院盖章。 


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