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“五七”祭日的来历和算法

风水习俗 昌达空间 14130℃ 0评论


  清•褚人获《坚瓠hù续集卷之二•腊忌》说:“人之初生,以七日为腊。人之初死,以七日为忌。一腊而一魄成,故七七四十九日而七魄具。一忌而一魂散,故七七四十九日而七魂泯。”
  清•钱泳《履园丛话卷二•考索•七七》说:“丧家七七之期,见于《北史》、《魏书》、《北齐书》及韩琦《君臣相遇传》。又顾亭林《日知录》、徐复祚《村老委谈》、郎瑛《七修类稿》皆载之。要皆佛氏之说,无足深考。惟《临淮新语》谓始死七日,冀其一阳来复也。祭于来复之期,即古者招魂之义,以生者之精神,召死者之灵爽,至七七四十九日不复,则不复矣,生者亦无可如何也。此说最通。”
  北宋•张君房《云笈七签•说魂魄》载:“正一真人居鹤鸣山洞,告赵升曰:夫人身有三魂,一名胎光,太清阳和之气也;一名爽灵,阴气之变也;一名幽精,阴气之杂也…..人身唯七魄常居不散。”
  《云笈七签•制七魄法》载:“其第一魄名尸狗,其第二魄名伏矢,其第三魄名雀阴,其第四魄名吞贼,其第五魄名非毒,其第六魄名除秽,其第七魄名臭肺。”
  唐初•李延寿《北史•胡国珍》:“(北魏孝明帝)神龟元年(518年)四月…..十二日(胡国珍)薨,年八十……大鸿胪持节监护丧事……自始薨至七七,皆为设千僧斋,斋令七人出家。百日设万人斋。”
  明•郎瑛《七修类稿•义理类•七七義》:“世以死者七日,为受罪之时,遂作佛事以解禳。此固妄诞之论,然传袭之来既久,远迩相同,亦必有故。问其人不知也。常思以为虞祭有七之义,此亦未通。后读《论衡·订鬼篇》有曰:鬼者,甲乙之神。甲乙者,天之別气。人病死,甲乙之鬼至矣。然而杀鬼之至者。又庚辛之神。何如验之?以甲乙日病者,死期常在庚辛之日也。予以是思之。此则五行相克之理。如木日鬼,金为之杀。金日鬼,非火为之杀乎?推之七七之说,亦是此理。以其相克之期,故为之禳解,遂延增妄诞之说也。然亦未知王论何从生。予推之者何如,姑识之以俟明理君子。”
  上述可见,“做七”祭奠亡人由来已久,至今最少1800年的历史了。
  北魏时期,“做七”已经在人们心目中根深蒂固。《七修类稿》针对“做七”也进行了理性分析,非常符合中国的道教思想。据此,可以断定“做七”来源于中国本土道教。
  在古代,人们最重视“七七”。由于历史的演变,现代中原地区,以“五七”为隆重的祭奠日子,几乎没人谈及“七七”。当然,南方很多地区仍非常重视“七七”。
  依据道教的说法,人有三魂七魄。婴儿出生,七七四十九天七魄全;人死之后,七七四十九天七魄尽。比如,《坚瓠续集》就是这样说的。
  人死之后,七魄先散,然后三魂再离。
  四十九天即七个七天,从去世之日算起,每七天为一个祭日:
  第一个七天,散一魄,叫一七、
  第二个七天,散二魄,叫二七、
  第三个七天,散三魄,叫三七、
  第四个七天,散四魄,叫四七、
  第五个七天,散五魄,叫五七、
  第六个七天,散六魄,叫六七、
  第七个七天,七魄尽,叫末七。
  也就是说,49天之后,这人的“魄气”也就全完了,只剩下了“三魂”还没散尽。
  河南当地风俗,“一七”、“二七”、“三七”、“四七”,披麻戴孝,坟上祭奠。特别是五七,当日要举行隆重祭奠,宴请客人。
  但是,“五七”到底是多少天呢?这很重要,具体说来,分两种情形:
  1.夫妇二人已经全部去世,从逝者死亡之日算起,五七三十五天,一天都不错。
  这个没有争论。
  2.夫妇二人有一人去世,也就是说老伴还活着,算法就不一样了。
  根据河南风俗,这有两种算法。第一,从死亡之日算起,“一七”为七整天,其它“四七”分别是六天,这叫“留七”。7+4×6=31,总计31天;
  第二,从死亡之日算起,“五七”的每一七都是六天,5×6=30,总计30天。
  到底31天正确,还是30天正确?最好根据当地风俗决定。
  “五七”说完了,附带说说周年。
  道教说:第一年,散一魂、第二年、散二魂、第三年,三魂尽。也就是说,人死三周年,一点“气息”都没了。所以,人死三周年,民间便看作是“喜丧”,焚纸祭奠之后,要宴请亲朋好友。

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