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《周易》第五十三卦,风山渐

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【绪言】

  《周易》第五十三卦《风山渐》。六爻纳甲法属于艮宫第八卦,五行属土。

  上一卦《艮为山》,静极思动,循序渐进,因此,此卦为《风山渐》。

  《渐》卦,逐渐成长的意思。寓意前进,进步。

  卦象叙述方式:大雁飞落河岸;大雁飞落磐石;大雁飞落陆地;大雁飞落树头;大雁飞落山顶;大雁飞落陆地。起步在河岸,飞落磐石,飞回陆地,第一阶段完成,表示初试锋芒,建功立业(下卦);大雁翱翔,飞落树头,飞上山顶,又返回陆地,第二阶段完成,表示大功成就,功德圆满(上卦)

  循序渐进,天命有归,最终确立了自己的立足点,以待壮大,因此,第五十四卦为《雷泽归妹》。《风山渐》与《雷泽归妹》互为综卦。

  

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗渐,女归①,吉。利贞。

  ①归:出嫁。

  译文

  卦辞:渐卦,女子出嫁,吉祥。有利于坚守贞洁。

  〖彖曰〗渐之进也,女归吉也。进得位,往有功也。进以正①,可以正邦②也。其位刚,得中也。止而巽,动不穷也③。

  ①正:正确,中正。②正邦:治理家邦。③动不穷也:发展空间广阔无边。动,行动,活动。不穷,无边。

  译文

  彖曰:渐卦之所以为进,就像女子到了结婚年龄一样,嫁进夫家自然吉祥。向前一步,进入自己的本位,意思是说,去了就能功遂愿。以正确的思想方针引导自己前进,那就能成就大业,治国齐邦。虽然秉性阳刚,但谋事中规中矩。下卦为艮为适可而止,但上卦为巽为进退自如,所以,其发展空间可谓是广阔无边。

  辨析

  1.所谓“女归吉也”,女子到了结婚的年龄,出嫁自然吉祥。这是借喻手法,并非此卦就是专讲女子嫁人。女子出嫁,组建家庭,生儿育女,并协助丈夫建功立业。此乃女人之归止,也便功成愿遂了。君子建功立业,同样也要努力向前,就像女子出嫁一样。

  2.所谓“进得位”,前进一步,得到自己本该的位置,就像女人嫁到夫家,本来就是自己该去的地方。渐卦为什么会“得位”呢?六二爻为阴爻得正,九五爻为阳爻得正,相互呼应。六二爻向上进发,与九五结合,所以说“得位”。

  3.所谓“进以正”,即“以正进”,选择正确的方位,向前走。原理同“进得位”。

  4.所谓“其位刚,得中也”,秉性刚正,但做事中规中矩。九五爻阳居阳爻,所以说“其位刚”;九五爻处于上卦中爻,所以说“得中也”。

  5.所谓“止而巽”,动静自如。下卦为艮为止,上卦为巽为动,合起来就是“动静自如”。此句话的关键点在于“巽卦”。巽卦为风、为顺、为动。自然界风向可以随时变换,所以,巽卦又表示前进和后退,因此,“止而巽”是动静自如的意思。能够动静自如,发展空间自然是非常广阔了。

  〖象曰〗山上有木,渐。君子以居①贤德②善俗③。

  ①居:保持。②贤德:美德。③善俗:改良风俗。善,使之改善。

  译文

  象曰:下卦为艮为山,上卦为巽为木,崇山峻岭,绿树成荫,称作渐卦。君子由此得到启发,就像大树生长在高山上一样,保持高尚品德,改善社会风俗。

  辨析

  所谓“居”,保持的意思。就像大树生长在高山上,自己始终保持着崇高的思想品质,影响天下,化民成俗。

  

风山渐.jpg

【爻辞】

  〖初六〗鸿①渐于干②。小子③厉,有言④,无咎。

  〖象曰〗小子之厉,义无咎也。

  ①鸿:鸿鹄,即天鹅一类的大鸟。②干:通“岸”,河岸。③小子:这里指幼鸟。④言:训导,责备。

  译文

  初六:雁群渐渐落在岸边。小雁在岸边很不安全,不断受到大雁的责备,如此才会无灾。

  象曰:说小雁不安全,从道理上讲是没有危险的。

  辨析

  1.所谓“鸿”,即鸿鹄,读hóng hú,鸿雁和天鹅一类的大鸟,人们常常以“鸿鹄”来比喻志向远大的人。渐卦寓意前进,因此,爻辞均用鸿雁来阐释。例如,丘迟《与陈伯之书》:“将军勇冠三军,才为世出,弃燕雀之小志,慕鸿鹄以高翔。”

  2.所谓“小子厉”,小雁不安全。大雁带着小雁在岸边饮水觅食,小雁出生不久,涉世不深,有可能遭到猛兽突袭,所以有危险。但小雁若听从大雁的教诲,就不会出现危险,所以才说“有言无咎”。

  3.初六爻,相当于小雁出生不久。阳位阴居不正,寓意有不安全因素。

  〖六二〗鸿渐于磐①,饮食衎衎②。吉。

  〖象曰〗饮食衎衎,不素饱也③。

  ①磐:大石头。②衎衎:读kàn,安然自得的样子。③不素饱也:不是白吃白喝。素饱,白白地吃饱,意思是吃闲饭。

  译文

  六二:雁群渐渐落在磐石上,安然地觅食。吉祥。

  象曰:安然地觅食,它们不是为了吃白食,而是吃饱了继续迁徙。

  〖九三〗鸿渐于陆。夫征①不复②,妇孕不育③,凶。利御寇④。

  〖象曰〗夫征不复,离群丑也⑤。妇孕不育,失其道也。利用御寇,顺相保也⑥。

  ①夫征:丈夫远征。②不复:不回家。③妇孕不育:即“妇不孕育”,妇女不能生育后代。④御寇:抵御敌人。⑤离群丑也:离开庸庸之辈。⑥顺相保也:跟随部队,共同保卫。顺,跟从,顺从。

  译文

  九三:雁群渐渐落在陆地上。如果雄雁远飞不返回,就像丈夫出征远方,妻子独自在家一样,没有机会怀孕生子,这不符合自然规律。如果丈夫为了抵御外敌入侵,那自然没有错(舍小家为大家)。

  象曰:丈夫远征在外,那是因为他离开了那些庸庸之辈。妻子没有机会怀孕生子,那就失去了女人生养子女的本能。如果丈夫为了抵御外敌入侵,自然没错,那肯定是跟随部队去了战场,共同保卫国家。

  辨析

  1.此爻既拟人又拟物,你中有我,我中有你,含义颇难理解。

  2.爻辞大意:一群大雁落在了陆地上。其中一只雄雁,志向远大,继续飞翔而不返回,导致雌雁不能交配孕育。就像一个具有远大理想的人,远行他方,不能与妻子长相厮守,妻子自然不能怀孕生子。这就违反了大自然规律。不过,话又说回来了,如果是为了抵御外敌入侵,那没有错。就像50年抗美援朝,几十万年轻小伙子离开家乡,奔赴朝鲜,抗击美帝。有的牺牲在了朝鲜,他们哪里还有后代?然而,舍小家为大家,他们的做法是值得称赞的。

  3.所谓“征”,出征,远征,远行。根据语义,这里指随着军队出征。

  4.所谓“妇孕不育”,很多人解释为:“妻子怀孕,但又流产了。”这不正确。“妇孕”,是对妇女生育的统称;“不育”,就是没有生育。合起来,就是“妻子没有机会生儿育女”。

  5.所谓“夫征不复,离群丑也”,丈夫远征在外,离开了那些庸庸之辈。这说明“丈夫”抱负远大,具有鸿鹄之志,不是普通的庸庸之辈。

  〖六四〗鸿渐于木①。或得其桷②,无咎。

  〖象曰〗或得其桷,顺以巽也③。

  ①木:树木。②桷:读jué,方形的椽子。这里表示像椽子一样有平面的树枝。③顺以巽也:因为到了巽卦,所以顺利。

  译文

  六四:雁群飞落在树枝上。有些大雁落在了平平的树杈上,没有错。

  象曰:有些大雁落在了平平的树杈上,那是因为遇到了森林,所以顺利。

  辨析

  1.所谓“桷”,房顶用的方形椽子,这里表示像椽子一样有平面的树枝。落在这个“平面”上,自然是舒适稳当,因此,平面相当于“发展平台”,寓意成功。

  2.所谓“或得其桷”,意思是说,有些大雁得到了这个“发展平台”。现实社会中,能获得一个晋升的平台,那是少数人的福分。

  3.所谓“顺以巽也”,巽为森林,为顺利。

  〖九五〗鸿渐于陵①,妇三岁不孕,终莫之胜②。

  〖象曰〗终莫之胜,吉,得所愿也。

  ①陵:坡顶。②终莫之胜:即“终莫胜之”,最终也没有能够战胜他的人。之,代词,指丈夫。

  译文

  九五:大雁飞落在坡顶上,就像丈夫出征远方,以致妻子三年都没有怀孕生子。值得庆幸的是,最终也没有能够战胜他的人。

  象曰:最终也没有能够战胜他的人,吉祥,丈夫的愿望终于实现了。

  辨析

  1.此爻又是既拟人又拟物,但其含义并不难理解。

  2.所谓“终莫之胜”,最终也没有能够打败他的人。此乃正解!查看网络和书籍,有些人竟翻译为“最终也没有人欺凌她(妻子)”,如此翻译,显得周文王并非大贤之人,反倒成了乡野庸俗之辈。难道说丈夫不在家,妻子就一定会被人欺凌吗?即使有这种现象,也纯属个例。

  “三岁不孕,终莫之胜”,妻子独自在家,三年都没有怀孕,深受委屈。然而,听到丈夫胜利的消息,自然是打心底里高兴。虽然自己深受委屈,但丈夫最终建功立业。所以,孔子才说“吉,得所愿也”。

  退一步讲,妻子在家没有被人欺凌,也不必用“得所愿也”来庆贺。换一个思维方式:丈夫去广州打工,三年后回家与妻子团聚,发现妻子没有被人欺凌,总不至于高兴地说:“最终也没人欺负我的老婆,我的愿望终于实现了。”如此便笑掉了大牙。

  〖上九〗鸿渐于陆,其羽可用为仪①,吉。

  〖象曰〗其羽可用为仪,吉,不可乱②也。

  ①仪:礼仪,法度,典范,表率。②乱:零乱。

  译文

  上九:大雁飞落陆地上,洁整的羽毛光鲜美丽,可以用来当作礼法的典范,吉祥。

  象曰:羽毛可以用来当作礼法的典范,确实吉祥,但要始终保持洁整,不能乱蓬蓬的。

  辨析

  此爻以大雁洁整的羽毛来拟人,君子达到最高境界的时候,时刻要注意自己的仪表,保持服饰整洁,搭配得体,风度翩翩,神采奕奕。

  为什么要达到最高境界的时候呢?因为此爻是上九爻,表示最高。比如干部,他们是人民的表率。再说了,他们也有更多的财力和时间去装束自己。

  难道普通人就没有必要注意仪表吗?当然有必要,但现实不可能允许。比如建筑工人,他们干的是脏活累活,汗流浃背,不可能搞得衣冠楚楚。

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