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《周易》第五十二卦,艮为山

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【绪言】

  《周易》第五十二卦《艮为山》。六爻纳甲法属于艮宫第一卦,五行属土。

  上一卦《震为雷》,威震天下,四海晏然。于是,解甲休士,乐享安逸,因此,此卦为《艮为山》。

  《震为雷》与《艮为山》互为综卦。有动有静,有行有止,该动则动,该止则止,此乃自然规律。

  《艮》卦,停止的意思。寓意静止、不动、歇息、控制、节制、退隐、违背、消极。

  卦象叙述方式:停下脚步,不问世事;坚持己见,不欢而散;坐立不安,心急如焚;停住身躯,超然物外;泰然自若,言之成理;静止规律,善用大吉。

  动静有法,静极思动。社会要发展,人类要进步,于是,由难到易,循序渐进。因此,第五十三卦为《风山渐》。《风山渐》与《雷泽归妹》互为综卦。

  

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【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗艮①其背②,不获③其身。行其庭④,不见其人。无咎。

  ①艮:不动。②背:脊背。③不获:查获不到。④行其庭:走在你的院子里。

  译文

  卦辞:你的脊背不动,别人就看不见你(的面容)。别人走在你的院子里,你也看不到别人。如此则无灾。

  辨析

  1.艮为山,为静止,为退隐,为消极。寺庙修道的高僧,闭目打坐,不问世事,六根清净,此为“艮象”。

  2.所谓“艮其背”,学堂肃静,学生们一排排面朝背而坐,正是艮之卦象。“艮其背”,寓意隐退静思,不问世事。

  〖彖曰〗艮,止也。时①止则止,时行则行,动静不失其时,其道②光明。艮其止,止其所③也。上下敌应④,不相与也,是以不获其身,行其庭不见其人,无咎也。

  ①时:时机,本该之时。②道:行事方针。③所:恰当的做法,详见辨析。④敌应:敌对,相互排斥。

  译文

  彖曰:艮卦,停止的意思。该停止的时候就停止,该行动的时候就行动,一动一静都不要错过时机,这种行事方针是极其正确的。艮卦所说的停止,就是适可而止,适时而止。艮卦上下不相应,就是不能相互合作,所以才说,别人不看你的行为,即使别人走在你的院子里,你也别看他的举止。不问世事,就无灾祸。

  辨析

  1.关于“止其所也”一语,源自《大学》,原文如下:

  《诗》云:“邦畿千里,惟民所止。”

  《诗》云:“缗蛮黄鸟,止于丘隅。”

  子曰:“於止,知其所止,可以人而不如鸟乎!”

  《诗》云:“穆穆文王,於缉熙敬止。”为人君止于仁,为人臣止于敬,为人子止于孝,为人父止于慈,与国人交止于信。

  译文

  《诗经》上说:“沃野千里的国土,那是老百姓居住的地方。”

  《诗经》上说:“喳喳鸣叫的黄鸟,栖息在山冈上的角落里。”

  孔子说:“黄鸟栖息在山顶的角落里,是它知道它应当栖息在什么地方,难道人还不如鸟吗?”

  《诗经》上说:“贤德威仪的文王,做事光明正大,令人敬重!”作为君王,要做到仁爱;作为臣子,要做到恭敬;作为孩子,要做到孝顺;作为父亲,要做到慈爱;民众交往,要做到诚信。

  2.《大学》,相传为春秋末年曾子所作。曾子,(前505年-前435年),孔子弟子之一,儒家学派的重要代表人物,主要作品有《论语》、《大学》、《孝经》等。《彖辞》引用了曾子的话,包括《象辞》中的“思不出其位”一句,出自《论语》,也是曾子的话。因此,《彖辞》和《象辞》大约成书于春秋战国时期。甚至《卦辞》,也不一定是文王一人所作。

  3.为了争夺天下,至亲之间尔虞我诈,明争暗斗,兄弟相残,弑父杀母(震为雷)。经过大风大浪,方才大彻大悟,于是,远离是非,隐居深山,咏佛悟道(艮为山)。比如宋朝赵显、明朝朱元璋、清朝顺治、李自成。又如红军将领钟循仁杨道明(此资料来自百度百科)。这就是下文《彖辞》所说的:“艮其止,止其所也。上下敌应,不相与也。”

  〖象曰〗兼山①,艮。君子以思不出其位。

  ①兼山:重叠的山峰。兼,重复,合并。②思不出其位:思考事情不超出自己的职责范围。

  译文

  象曰:下卦为艮为山,上卦也为艮为山,山峦叠嶂,称作艮卦。君子由此得到启发,就像躲在了封闭的大山里,凡是超出职责范围的事情,不去考虑。

  辨析

  所谓“思不出其位”,出自曾子的《论语》,子曰:“不在其位,不谋其政。”曾子曰:“君子思不出其位。”不是自己职责范围内的事,就不要管。常言道:“管闲事,落不是。”懂得少管闲事,是一份处事的智慧,更是一份为人的修养。

  

【爻辞】

  〖初六〗艮其趾,无咎。利永贞。

  〖象曰〗艮其趾,未失正也。

  译文

  初六:脚拇指停下来,没有灾祸。适宜永远坚守这份纯正。

  象曰:脚拇指停下来,那是因为这样做不会失去正确的方向。

  辨析

  《雷天大壮》初九爻有:“壮于趾,征凶。有孚。”详细点此查看

  〖六二〗艮其腓①,不拯②其③随④,其心不快。

  〖象曰〗不拯其随,未退听⑤也。

  ①腓:读féi。胫骨后的肉,即小腿肚。②拯:帮助,引申为抬起,举起。③其:代词,别人。这里指九三爻。④随:跟着。⑤退听:退让顺从。

  译文

  六二:小腿肚停下来,不抬脚跟着他走,所以,他的心里才不愉快。

  象曰:不抬脚跟着他走,那说明自己不愿意跟风顺从。

  辨析

  1.《泽山咸》六二爻有:“咸其腓,凶。居吉。”详细点此查看

  2.所谓“其”,代词,指九三爻。九三为阳爻,阳主动,自我约束力差,静不下心来。

  3.九二爻为阴爻,能够静下心来,洞彻自然之法则。所以,九二爻不愿意随意跟着九三爻。

  4.所谓“随”,古人解释:“腓动,则足随之,故谓足谓随。”其实,恰恰相反,脚拇指动,小腿肚跟随。因此,小腿肚为随。

  〖九三〗艮其限①,列其夤②,厉③薰心④。

  〖象曰〗艮其限,危⑤薰心也。

  ①限:界限,限度。这里指上下身的界限。②列其夤:断了腰椎,即酷刑“腰斩”。列,分裂。夤,读yín,腰椎。③厉:危险,严重。④薰心:烈火烧心,即酷刑“炮烙”。薰,烧灼。⑤危:站在高处有危险。《孝经》:“高而不危,所以长守贵也。” 

  译文

  九三:虽然腰部没动,但控制不了双脚继续行走。如果执意行动,就会遭遇腰斩,甚至被烈火烤成肉干。

  象曰:腰部虽然没动,但双脚依然行走,这种危险的做法可能会把你烤成肉干。

  辨析

  1.九三爻为阳爻,阳主动,违反了艮卦静止的本义。

  2.所谓“艮其限”,指腰部不动。即使腰部不动,抬脚可以远走,扭头可以远望。寓意心不安分,蠢蠢欲动,没有做到“静止”的最高境界。

  3.所谓“限”,界限,限度。九三爻为阳为动,九三爻又是下卦最上爻,因此,“限”,寓意超过限度。九三爻位于全卦的中部,因此,“限”又喻示人的腰部。

  4.所谓“列其夤”,夤,即腰椎。腰椎裂开了。指古代酷刑,腰斩,从腰部将犯人砍作两截。

  5.列其夤,今天也可以看作“腰椎间盘突出症”。腰间盘突出,会压迫神经,导致臀部和一条腿极其疼痛。严重时,注射杜冷丁也没有作用。

  6.所谓“厉薰心”,甚至烈火烧心。暗指商纣的“炮烙之刑。《史记殷本纪》曰:“炊炭其下,使罪人步其上”《列女传》释曰:“膏铜柱,下加之炭,令有罪者行焉,辄堕炭中,妲己笑,名曰炮烙之刑”死于炮烙之刑的是商大夫梅伯和赵启,两人因为犯言直谏,被处以炮烙之刑,骨肉化为灰烬。炮烙相比腰斩,受刑者更加痛苦难耐,因此才说:“厉薰心。”意思是,严重的话,就要遭遇炮烙之刑。厉,极其危险,极其严重的意思。

  7.所谓“危”,九三爻为下卦最上爻,喻义身居高处,十分危险。

  8.为什么九三爻如此吓人?这说明一个问题,该止则止。比如殷商末期,纣王已然不可救药,就不要再去冒颜进谏。明知不可挽回,仍然冒着生命去劝阻纣王,必死无疑。这种不明智的做法,完全违反了艮之卦义。

  〖六四〗艮其身,无咎。

  〖象曰〗艮其身,止诸①躬②也。

  ①诸:于。②躬:亲自。

  译文

  六四:整个身子都停下来,这不会有错。

  象曰:整个身子都停下来,那是自己主动停了下来。

  〖六五〗艮其辅①,言有序②。悔亡。

  〖象曰〗艮其辅,以中正也。

  ①辅:面颊。②言有序:说话有条有理,言之有序。序,次序,条理。

  译文

  六五:控制自己的表情,说起话来有条有理。如此,曾经的悔恨才会消失。

  象曰:控制自己的表情,那能让自己变得规规矩矩,仪表堂堂。

  辨析

  1.所谓“艮其辅”,意思是注意面部表情,喜怒不形于色。

  2.六五爻,相当于面部,面部和眼睛能传达内心情感;口能叙述思想见解。

  〖上九〗敦①艮,吉。

  〖象曰〗敦艮之吉,以厚终②也。

  ①敦:注重,务实。②厚终:注重结果。厚,注重。

  译文

  上九:真正能把握停止的规律,吉利。

  象曰:真正能把握停止的规律之所以吉利,那是因为能够看重事物变化的结果。

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