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《周易》第五十卦,火风鼎

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【绪言】

  《周易》第五十卦《火风鼎》。六爻纳甲法属于离宫第三卦,五行属火。

  上一卦《泽火革》,改革创新,定鼎天下。风助火势,火借风威,大鼎烹饪,热气升腾,一派风起云蒸的景象,因此,此卦为《火风鼎》。

  《泽火革》与《火风鼎》互为综卦,革故方能鼎新。

  《鼎》卦,国家的象征。寓意建立、创立、定鼎、权威、权力、升职、显赫、鼎盛。

  卦象叙述方式:革故鼎新,获得新生;国力渐盛,莫再迟疑;德政普施,天下方安;无谋蛮干,弄巧成拙;政权稳定,运作畅通;生活富裕,力求完美。

  先辈南征北战,革故鼎新,打下千秋伟业,需要下一代雷厉风行,承上启下,继往开来,因此,第五十一卦为《震为雷》。《震为雷》与《艮为山》互为综卦。

  

火风鼎.jpg

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗鼎,元吉,亨。

  译文

  卦辞:鼎卦,大吉大利,万事亨通。

  〖彖曰〗鼎,象也①,以木巽火②,亨饪也。圣人亨以享上帝③,而大亨④以养圣贤⑤。巽⑥而耳目聪明,柔进而上行⑦,得中而应乎刚⑧,是以元亨。

  ①象也:以卦象喻示事理。②以木巽火:用木生火。巽,巽卦,五行为木。③亨以享上帝:烹饪美食,用以祭献上天。④大亨:物质富足,万事亨通。大,形容词,指富足。⑤以养圣贤:用以资养圣人。⑥巽:巽卦为风,微风习习。喻义政治风向,当下时局。⑦上行:火势向上。喻义提升文化和事业。⑧得中而应乎刚:行为中正,又能顺应君王。指贤臣辅佐君王。得,具备,占据。中,指九二爻,喻义端正。应,顺应。刚,指九五爻,喻义君王。《司马光·潜虚》刚,天之道也。

  译文

  彖曰:鼎卦,以象喻义,添柴生火,烹饪膳食。圣人烹饪美食用以进献上天,上天保佑生活富足又能资养圣贤。风采飞扬而又耳聪目明,循序渐进而又追求上进,举止中正,顺应君王,所以才说大吉大利。

  辨析

  1.所谓“圣人亨以享上帝,而大亨以养圣贤”,这句话,可以这样理解:“物质丰富,国泰民安,才能留得住人才。有能力的人为国奉献,再创辉煌,因此,君王才有能力烹饪美食,用来祭献上天。”

  2.所谓“巽而耳目聪明,柔进而上行,得中而应乎刚”,这句话是指辅佐君王的贤臣,大意是:“大臣们风清气正,耳聪目明,循序渐进,自我提升。举止端正,忠心耿耿,辅佐君王。”

  〖象曰〗木上有火,鼎。君子以正位①凝命②。

  ①正位:端正位置。位,职位。②凝命:凝聚使命。凝,凝聚,停止。比喻郑重地完成。命,使命,任务。

  译文

  象曰:下卦为巽为木,上卦为离为火,火下有木,木能生火,方可烹饪食物,称作鼎卦。君子由此得到启发,就像大鼎一样,摆正自己的位置,凝聚力量,以完成自身使命。

  辨析

  鼎,外形方正,威严庄重。君子要像大鼎一样,举止端正,威仪凛然。

  

【爻辞】

  〖初六〗鼎颠趾①,利出否②。得妾以其子③,无咎。

  〖象曰〗鼎颠趾,未悖也④。利出否,以从贵也⑤。

  ①颠趾:腿朝上。颠,颠覆。趾,鼎腿。②利出否:容易把脏东西倒出来。利,适宜。否,坏,恶。喻义黑暗的旧社会。③得妾以其子:娶个新媳妇,又生了儿子。寓意希望。④未悖也:没有违背天理。⑤以从贵也:因为要跟随贵人。

  译文

  初六:打碎旧世界,就像推翻大鼎一样,把里面所有的脏东西统统倒出去。进入新社会,就像再娶个新媳妇,又生了儿子一样,给自己带来了希望,这没有错。

  象曰:把大鼎倒过来腿朝上,这不是逆天而行。适宜把所有脏东西倒出去,那是为了紧跟新政权。

  辨析

  1.所谓“鼎颠趾”,把大鼎推翻,倒过来腿朝上。鼎,权力的象征,君王的象征。把大鼎推翻,寓意推翻旧社会。初爻,象征推翻旧社会的初级阶段。

  2.所谓“利出否”,适宜把脏东西倒出去。寓意推翻旧社会,清除所有的旧势力。利,适宜。不能解释为“容易”。否,坏,恶。暗指黑暗的旧社会,旧体制,旧势力。

  3.所谓“得妾以其子”,娶个新媳妇,又给自己生了儿子。寓意跟从新生政权,给自己带来了希望。儿子,是家庭的希望。

  〖九二〗鼎有实①,我仇有疾②,不我能即③。吉。

  〖象曰〗鼎有实,慎所之也④。我仇有疾,终无尤⑤也。

  ①实:装满食物。比喻能力。②我仇有疾:我的同伴们心有疑虑。仇,读qiú,利益相关的朋友。疾,顾虑。③不我能即:我无法与他们共享食物。不我,倒装句,我不。即,就餐。④慎所之也:心怀不安,不敢前去。慎,警惕。所,表示“去”。之,他们那里。⑤尤:忧虑,怨恨。

  译文

  九二:大鼎内装满了食物,我的同伴们心有疑虑,却不能与我共享食物。吉利。

  象曰:大鼎内装满了食物,他们担心却不敢去。我的朋友们心有疑虑,但他们最终会消除心中的疑虑。

  辨析

  1.此爻颇难解释。查阅网络及书籍,各执一词,且有些翻译驴头不对马嘴。根据卦义,第一爻就是推翻旧世界,建立新王朝,所以,我们应该按照这个思路去分析。

  有人译为:“鼎里装满食物,仇人嫉妒,不与我分享。”既然是仇人,还谈何分享?

  又有人译为:“鼎里装满食物,老婆有病,我自己也能做。”似乎周文王在编写生活小说。

  据史料记载,商朝势力范围以内和以外分散着许多方国,比如舌方、鬼方、土方、羌方、人方、虎方、危方、孤竹等方国,以及其它部落。推翻大鼎,殷商灭亡,周朝建立,改天换地。在此政权更替时期,不是所有的方国都愿意跟从周武王。

  方国,就是盘踞在商朝国内,或周边,具有自主权的一些小国,以及顺从商朝的附属国。

  大鼎里装满了食物,归顺的方国自然可以享用。心怀怨恨,或心有疑虑的那些方国和部落,自然不会前来享用。鼎装食物,不过是一个打比方的说法。所以孔子才说:“锅里有大鱼大肉,各部落心中害怕,他们不敢来吃。”如同现在的台湾,你是想吃大陆这碗饭,还是想吃美国那碗饭,自己看着办。吃了是友,不吃是敌,至少不打算顺从我。

  2.所谓“鼎有实”,大鼎里装满了食物,喻义新政权具有坚实的力量,既有文臣武将,又有财富基础。

  3.所谓“我仇有疾,不我能即”,我的同伴们心有疑虑,大家却不能在一起用餐。通过这句话,我们可以断定,这是一个方国前来投靠之后的心声。也就是说,原先他们两国关系甚好,现在天下变了,我只有前来投靠强大的周武王。可是,你们却心怀疑虑,或是心怀仇恨,不愿和我一起前来。

  4.所谓“仇”,读qiú,人+九为仇,本义人多,人多必生恩怨,故兼恨意。比如,恩恩怨怨的夫妻、恩恩怨怨的朋友,因此,仇是同伴、朋友、配偶。古作“雠”。本文,仇指同伴,即邻国友好的君王,或相邻友好的部落首领。而不是配偶。为什么?《革》、《鼎》之卦义,是在描述改变天下,创建新秩序,而不是在描写家庭生活。

  5.所谓“吉”,同伴不在一起用餐,为何吉利?这是立足于周武王而言。谁来吃我的饭(投奔我),就是我的朋友;不来吃,就是不打算顺从我,甚至是我的敌人。是敌是友,如此便清清楚楚。下一步,就要针对性讨伐,或拉拢。因此,周武王认为“吉利”。而不是天下人都会吉利。

  6.所谓“鼎有实,慎所之也”,意思是说,锅里有大鱼大肉,各部落小心翼翼,不敢贸然来吃。这是指在建国之初,周边小国的一种观望态度。新中国建立之初,也是如此。为了让全世界承认中华人民共和国的合法地位,周恩来总理高度重视同非洲各国建立友谊,向他们派遣援外医疗队,并给于资金援助。

  7.所谓“我仇有疾,终无尤也”,意思是说,我的朋友们心有疑虑,不愿前来,终有一天,他们会放下疑虑和怨气,前来投奔。这也预示了周武王征服四方的最后的胜利结局。

  〖九三〗鼎耳革①,其行塞②,雉膏③不食④。方雨⑤亏悔⑥,终吉。

  〖象曰〗鼎耳革,失其义也。

  ①革:除掉。②塞:阻塞,不顺利。③雉膏:野鸡肉。雉,野鸡。膏,肉汤。④不食:不能做着吃。⑤方雨:开始下雨了。雨,滋润,比喻下达正确的命令。⑥亏悔:悔恨消散。

  译文

  九三:鼎耳变形,移动起来就非常困难,连一点野鸡也无法煮着吃。君王及时下达了正确的法令,就像天降甘霖滋润大地一样,心中的懊恼才逐渐散去,最终吉祥。

  象曰:鼎耳变形,就失去了它本来的作用。

  辨析

  1.所谓“鼎有革”,鼎耳变形。革,变形,受到外力破坏而导致变形。砸坏了鼎耳,导致使用不方便,象征错误的左倾做法。革命,是革旧政权的命,而不是把所有财物都毁掉,以致人们生活艰难。比如,平津战役打响后,毛泽东频频给部队发报,要求保护好学校和文物古迹。因而,北平城外的清华大学、燕京大学及颐和园、香山、玉泉山、八大处等重要教育机关和文化古迹才免受炮火的轰炸。但是,解放军因此遭到了巨大的牺牲。

  2.所谓“方雨”,天开始下雨了。雨,具有润泽的意思。比喻开始下达了正确的命令。所以,方雨,不是真的下雨。如果按照下雨解释,那就与前文语义不通。这正是改朝换代,推翻旧势力期间的过渡情形。

  3.所谓“鼎耳革,失其义也”,鼎耳变形,就失去了它本来的作用。孔子也强调了这一点,推翻旧世界,建立新政权,是为了推翻那些作威作福的旧势力,而不是要把他们的房子拆掉,物品砸碎。都毁坏了,将来还怎么使用?所以孔子才说“失其义也”。

  〖九四〗鼎折足,覆①公餗②,其形渥③。凶。

  〖象曰〗覆公餗,信如何也④?

  ①覆:倾倒。②公餗:君主,或贵族所享用的食物。餗,读sù,鼎内食物。③其形渥:鼎身沾满了饭菜。其形,指鼎身。渥,读wò,沾。④信如何也:倒装句,怎么相信?

  译文

  九四:鼎腿断掉,大鼎倾倒,美食洒了一地,鼎身沾满了饭菜。凶险。

  象曰:大鼎倾倒,美食洒了一地,谁还会再信任你呢?

  辨析

  1.九二爻、九三爻和九四爻,都是象征鼎腹,盛装食物那部分。此爻阴位阳居,不正,喻义大鼎倾倒。九三爻只是把鼎耳砸坏,此爻却变本加厉,把大鼎也推翻了。

  2.此爻仍是描述改朝换代期间的乱象。大意是,没有能力,粗野暴躁的人,连碗饭都做不好,甚至还把大鼎弄翻。喻义这种粗鲁的人不但不能帮你成就事业,反而会把你的事业毁掉。

  〖六五〗鼎黄耳,金铉①,利贞。

  〖象曰鼎黄耳,中②以为实③也。

  ①金铉:读xuàn,提鼎用的金属吊钩。②中:中爻。象征大鼎口径下边,适合安装起吊的部位。③实:结实,牢固。

  译文

  六五:黄铜制成的鼎耳,金属制成的吊钩,这有利于长期使用。

  象曰:黄金制成的鼎耳,位置恰当,且结实耐用。

  辨析

  1.经过鼎耳损坏(九三爻),鼎腿断裂(九四爻),至此,大鼎方才完整无缺。喻示新政权稳定下来,体制完备,运作畅通。

  2.所谓“黄耳”和“金铉”,黄,指黄铜。金,指金属。而不是黄金。黄金虽然昂贵,但质地柔软,承重力差。

大鼎.jpg

  〖上九〗鼎玉铉①,大吉,无不利。

  〖象曰〗玉铉在上②,刚柔节③也。

  ①玉铉:用玉制的环,装饰鼎口。②上:借指鼎口的边沿。③节:调节。

  译文

  上九:玉制的环装饰在鼎口上,庄严而又尊贵,大吉,没有不利。

  象曰:玉制的环装饰在鼎口上,有刚有柔,刚柔并济。

  辨析

  1.所谓“玉铉”,玉质的环,装在鼎口的边沿,用作装饰。六五爻的“金铉”,金属吊环,装在鼎口下端,用以提鼎。就像一辆汽车,车身是刚,颜色为柔,有刚有柔,看起来才会美观。

  2.宝鼎配有装饰品,象征尊贵的皇权。

  3.上九爻的“玉环”说明,随着政权的稳定,物质生活提升之后,人们对精神需求也提出了更高的要求。

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