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《周易》第四十八卦,水风井

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【绪言】

  《周易》第四十八卦《水风井》。六爻纳甲法属于震宫第六卦,五行属木。

  上一卦《泽水困》,身处困境,暂时只有安分知足,买静求安,因此,此卦为《水风井》。

  《泽水困》与《水风井》互为综卦,遇到的困难,不能继续前进,就要静下心来,三省吾身,以图东山再起。

  《井》卦,安静不动,返璞归真的意思。寓意静守、静思、冷静、回落。世间凡事皆有“高潮与低谷。比如新交好友,一段时间内可能形影不离,热火朝天。随着时间的推移,即使没有矛盾,双方也会逐渐冷却下来,回归自然。《井》卦的冷静,大部分是背运之后的表征,少部分是正常的自然现象。比如夫妻,起初狂热,婚后逐渐平淡。这种平淡不代表不爱,而是爱的另一种方式而已。

  卦象叙述方式:井底淤泥,无水可饮;愚昧无知,败事有余;忽略人才,荐贤举能;维护政局,国泰民安;安居乐业,井然有序;讲究公德,大吉大利。

  静下心来,反躬自省,改革创新,因此,第四十九卦为《泽火革》。《泽火革》与《火风鼎》互为综卦。

水风井.jpg

  

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗井,改①邑不改井,无丧无得②,往来③井井④。汔至⑤,亦未⑥繘井⑦。羸其瓶⑧,凶。

  ①改邑:迁移村镇。②无丧无得:没有失去也没有增多。丧,损失。得,增多。③往来:走的走,来的来。④井井:井仍然是井,仍然可以取水。⑤汔至:彻底干枯。读qì,水涸。至,形容词,彻底,完全。⑥亦未:又不。⑦繘井:挖井。繘,读jú,深挖。⑧羸其瓶:损坏了它的内壁。羸,读léi,破旧,损坏。瓶,寓意井壁和井口。

  译文

  卦辞:井卦,村子可以迁移,但井不会变动。人们天天取水,井水既不会干枯也没有增多。人来人往,井依然是井,依然可以取水饮用。一旦井水完全干枯,又不及时淘井,直至井壁塌陷,那就不吉利了。

  辨析

  1.水井固定不动。来来往往的人们,都能取水饮用。

  2.所谓“往来井井”,该走的人走了,还是那口井。该来的人来了,还是那口井,依然可以取水饮用。第一个“井”,动词,取水。第二个“井”,名词,水井。

  3.所谓“汔至”,水井彻底干涸。汔,氵+乞,本义水少,水干枯。至,形容词,彻底,完全。有人把“汔至”解释为“将要把水提出井口的时候”,个人认为不正确。这一点可以从孔子的《彖辞》得到验证。

  4.所谓“繘”,纟+矛+冏,本义绳绑工具向下挖,指淘井。

  5.所谓“羸其瓶”,井壁塌陷。羸,本义瘦弱,比喻塌陷,毁坏。瓶,比喻水井的井壁和井口。

  〖彖曰〗巽乎水而上水,井。井养而不穷也。改邑不改井,乃以刚中也。汔至亦未繘井,未有功也。羸其瓶,是以凶也。

  译文

  彖曰:下卦为巽为入,象征进入水中。上卦为坎为水,象征向上提水,称作井卦。井水可以源源不断地供养人类饮用。村子迁走了,但井不动,那是因为井在地下。井水干枯而又不及时淘井,那说明你没有任何功绩。最后,井也塌陷了,因此才不吉利。

  〖象曰〗木上有水,井。君子以劳民①劝相②。

  ①劳民:体恤人民。劳,慰劳。②劝相:劝勉百姓,团结互助。相,帮助。

  译文

  象曰:下卦为巽为入,上卦为坎为水,桶入水中,向上提水,称作井卦。君子由此得到启发,慰劳百姓,劝勉他们团结互助。

  辨析

  1.巽卦,本义进进退退,上上下下,正是“井中汲水”之象。

  2.所谓“木上有水”,根据现代考古发现,某地古井底部铺有金丝楠木,于是,一部分人就认为这是“木上有水”的来由。

  金丝楠质地坚硬,遇水不腐,遇蚁不穴,纹理淡雅,金光闪闪,极其珍贵,古代常用于皇家贵族。井,无非用来取水食用,何必井底置木呢?井底铺上沙石,不但价格低廉,又有利于过滤水质,岂不是更好!少部分水井出现楠木,并不代表古代所有井底都必须铺设昂贵的金丝楠。至于孔子所说:“木上有水”,个人认为,是指提水的木桶。商周时期,虽然已经有了陶瓷瓦罐,但陶瓷是经过高温烧制而成的,其价格必然高昂,又容易破碎。因此,井中汲水还是木桶最贴合实际。

【爻辞】

  〖初六〗井泥①不食。旧井无禽。

  〖象曰〗井泥不食,下②也。旧井无禽,时舍③也。

  ①井泥:井底有淤泥。②下:动词,水位下沉。③时舍:时间推移,舍弃不用。

  译文

  初六:井底有淤泥,水就不能再饮用。年久失修的废井,哪怕是飞禽走兽,也不喜欢来饮水。

  象曰:井底有淤泥,水就不能再饮用,原因是水位下降了。年久失修的废井,飞禽走兽也不会来饮水,原因是年代久远,舍弃不用了。

  辨析

  1.初爻在全卦最下方,象征井底。井底本应是沙石硬物,理应为阳爻,但为阴爻所居。因此,象征淤泥。

  2.禽兽不来饮水,这是夸张的说法。

  3.所谓“井泥不食”,井底有淤泥,无法饮用。寓意萎靡不振,自甘堕落。

  〖九二〗井谷①射鲋②,瓮③敝④漏。

  〖象曰〗井谷射鲋,无与⑤也。

  ①井谷:井水中。②射鲋:捉鱼。射,瞄准用力打。鲋,小鱼。③瓮:汲水用的陶制罐子。④敝:毁坏。⑤与:给。

  译文

  九二:用罐子投射水中的小鱼,结果把罐子也碰漏了。

  象曰:用罐子投射水中的小鱼,不可能得到。

  辨析

  1.所谓“射鲋”,就是捉鱼。根据语境,前去汲水,发现井中有小鱼游动,异想天开,于是,绳子拴住罐子,砸向游鱼,结果没有砸到小鱼,反而把罐子也碰漏了。这只是小孩子才会办的事。

  2.古代井中,会放几条小鱼,用以净化水质。同时,也起到了“监测水质”的作用。

  3.九二爻,象征井水,理应为阴,但却是阳爻,阴位阳居,不正,喻义水中的游鱼比较大,或比较多,因此,才会引起提水者注意。

井水.jpg

  〖九三〗井渫①不食,为我心恻②。可③用汲,王明④,并受其福⑤。

  〖象曰〗井渫不食,行恻⑥也。求⑦王明,受福也。

  ①渫:读xiè,淘去污泥。②心恻:心痛。③可:能够,值得。④王明:君王圣明。⑤并受其福:大家都能蒙受它给予的好处。并,全部。受,蒙受。⑥行恻:做法让人痛心。⑦求:盼望。

  译文

  九三:井淘干净却没人饮用,让我心痛。井水完全可以食用,就像君王圣明一样,大家都能蒙受他带来的好处。

  象曰:井淘干净却没人饮用,这种行为让人心痛。祈盼君王圣明,那是为了蒙受他赐予的福分。

  辨析 

  1.爻辞寓意有才能的人没有用武之地。一心一意有所作为,但无人领受,只落了个令人心寒的结局。希望“君王贤明”,像汲水一样选拔人才,唯才是举,知人善任。

  同时,也表示公共设施闲置。比如,中国“厕所革命”,为了方便群众,国家投资大量资金,新建改建公共厕所,确实给人民带来了方便。但是,有些地方政府应付形式,搞形式主义,厕所建成了三四年,依然关着门。难怪群众说:“没有改建的时候还能用,现在连个破厕所也没有了。”

  2.所谓“可用汲”,表面意思是“可以取水饮用”,喻义却是“可以提拔任用”。

  3.九三爻阳位阳居,得正,又与上六呼应,吉象。

  〖六四〗井甃①,无咎。

  〖象曰〗井甃无咎,修井也。

  ①甃:读zhòu,用砖砌的井壁,引申为修缮。

  译文

  六四:井壁是用砖块砌起来的,没有毛病。

  象曰:井壁是用砖块砌起来的,没有毛病,那是经过了再次整修。

  辨析

  六四爻虽然无应,但阴居阴位得正,故有修井之象。

  〖九五〗井冽①,寒泉②食。

  〖象曰〗寒泉之食,中正也。

  ①冽:寒气。②寒泉:清澈的井水。

  译文

  九五:井内凉爽,清澈的井水适宜饮用。

  象曰:清澈的井水适宜饮用,原因是泉水旺盛。

  辨析

  九五爻阳位阳居,得正,说明泉水旺,水位高,俯身即可取水。

  〖上六〗井收①勿幕②。有孚③,元吉。

  〖象曰〗元吉在上,大成④也。

  ①井收:指取水之后。收,收获,指取水。②勿幕:不要覆盖。③有孚:遵守社会公德。孚,品德。④大成:大有成就。

  译文

  上六:提水之后,不要盖住井口。大家都要遵守社会公德,天下才会稳定。

  象曰:上六爻大吉大利,意思是说可以正常生活。

  辨析

  1.一般情况下,上爻是不吉利的。但《井》卦例外,因为站在井台上才能提水。上六寓意“井台”,自然大吉。

  2.所谓“井收勿幕”,意思是说,井是公共设施,全村共用。当自己取完水的时候,不要自私自利,盖上井盖,给别人取水带来麻烦。

  3.所谓“有孚”,意思是说,井是公共设施,大家共同维护,共同使用,这是人们要遵守社会公德。“有孚”,不能直接翻译为“有诚信”。

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