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追根溯源 六十四卦的六种排序法

自然科学 昌达空间 5486℃ 0评论

 

常见六十四卦“卦序”,有六种:

本文目录
1.《帛书》卦序
2.《元包经》所载卦序
3.《卦序传》所载卦序
4.《圆图》卦序
5.《方图》卦序
6.京房八宫卦序

 

一.《帛书》卦序

  七十年代初期,湖南长沙东郊“马王堆”汉墓出土了大量帛书文献,其中载有《周易》,我们暂称为《帛书》卦。但其六十四卦名称和卦序均与《卦序传》所载不同。

  《帛书》所载六十四卦卦序:

  键(乾)1;妇(否)2;掾(遁)3;礼(履)4;讼5;同人6;无孟(无妄)7;狗(逅)8;根(艮)9;泰蓄(大蓄)10;剥11;损12;蒙13;蘩(贲)14;颐15;箇(蛊)16;赣(坎)17;襦(需)18;比19;蹇20;节21;既济22;屯23;井24;辰(震)25;泰壮(大壮)26;馀(豫)27;少过(小过)28;归妹29;解30;丰31;恒32;川(坤)33;柰(泰)34;嗛(谦)35;林(临)36;师37;明夷38;復(复)39;登(升)40;夺(兑)41;夬42;卒(萃)43;钦(咸)44;困45;勒(革)46;隋(随)47;泰过(大过)48;罗(离)49;大有50;溍(晋)51;旅52;乖(睽)53;未济54;筮盍(噬嗑)55;鼎56;筭(巽)57;少蓻(小蓄)58;观59;渐60;中复(中孚)61;涣62;家人63;益64

  关于部分卦名的读音:

  键:古音“乾”。掾:yuàn。蘩:fán。箇:gè。襦:rú。嗛:音“谦”。柰:nài。溍:音“晋”。筭:suàn。蓻:此字实际是上“艹”下“孰”,但《康熙字典》查不到,《说文解字》没收录,所以,连读音都不得而知。

  《帛书》部分卦名,由于年代久远,其本义早已湮灭在历史中,今天根本无法探正。其二,有些卦可能借用某字来代替,原本就无特别含义。其三,也可能是抄写有误。因此,深究起来毫无价值。

  《序卦传》卦序是今天我们大家认可的。那么,《帛书》和《序卦传》,分别成书于何时?

  马王堆古墓是西汉利苍及其家属的墓葬,距今大约2180年。换句话说,《帛书》抄写于2200年前。

  那么,《序卦传》是什么时期的作品呢?据史学家考正,该书应是孔子门徒所写,并非出自孔子一人之手。

  《易纬乾凿度》一书,可以让我们窥探到《序卦传》的成书年代。《易纬乾凿度》成书于2100年之前的西汉时期,书中几乎篇篇都要提到孔子“说易”,关于“六十四卦排序”也与《序卦传》完全相同。其中一段话,这样描述了六十四卦的排序原理:“易卦六十四,分而为上下,象阴阳也。纯而奇,故上篇为三十;阴道不纯而偶,故下篇三十四,所以法阴也。”

  我们不妨这样想:2100年前的西汉时期,正是周易研究的鼎盛时期,桃花李树,百家争鸣。学者的研究方向各异,周易卦名和卦序尚未统一。正是在这样的氛围下,《序卦传》诞生,减繁归一。

  可以说,西汉到夏朝的2000年中,所说的周易与今天的周易绝对不同。所以,才有“连山易、归臧易、周易”的不同说法。

  归根结底,在西汉之前的几百年中,无论“连山”还是“归臧”,与周易相互渗透,相互融合,最终形成了今天的“周易”。

  《序卦传》最早出现在王弼的《周易注》一书中。王弼,活动于1800年前。

  那么,《帛书》卦序有什么原理呢?这个尚需研究。

  

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二.《元包经》所载卦序

  《元包经》,作者卫元嵩,四川人,周易学家,活动于1500年前。

  在《元包经》中,六十四卦排列如下:《坤为地》为始……《泽雷随》为终。不再详细胪列,请参看下面图片。

  为什么如此排列?目前,尚未发现后人有传作解释,本人学术浅薄,也没空钻研,不得而知。

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三.《卦序传》所载卦序

  此卦序已经延续了2000年之久,是今天的“通行版”,也就是我们所熟知的,也是能得到实用的卦序。

  六十四卦卦序:

  1、乾为天2、坤为地3、水雷屯4、山水蒙5、水天需6、天水讼

  7、地水师8、水地比9、风天小畜10、天泽履11、地天泰12、天地否

  13、天火同人14、火天大有15、地山谦16、雷地豫17、泽雷随18、山风蛊

  19、地泽临20、风地观21、火雷噬嗑22、山火贲23、山地剥24、地雷复

  25、天雷无妄26、山天大蓄27、山雷颐28、泽风大过29、坎为水30、离为火

  31、泽山咸32、雷风恒33、天山遁34、雷天大壮35、火地晋36、地火明夷

  37、风火家人38、火泽睽39、水山蹇40、雷水困41、泽山损42、风雷益

  43、泽天夬44、天风姤45、泽地萃46、地风升47、泽水困48、水风井

  49、泽火革50、火风鼎51、震为雷52、艮为山53、风山渐54、雷泽归妹

  55、雷火丰56、火山旅57、巽为风58、兑为泽59、风水涣60、水泽节

  61、风泽中孚62、雷山小过63、水火既济64、火水未济

  这种卦序到底有什么用呢?

  假如起卦《水天需》,那么,上一卦是《蒙》,说明卦主早一段时间稀里糊涂;下一卦是《讼》,说明将来要面临纷争和矛盾,甚至引发官司。

  又如,起卦《水地比》,上一卦是《师》,预示卦主曾经动用财力和人力;下一卦是《小蓄》,将来一定有所收获。请参阅《实用六十四卦排列原理》一文。

  针对这种“通行版卦序”,很多学者为此大费脑筋,执意要找出个所以然来,甚至画图演示。我认为:“大道至简”,不要把古人想得太复杂。六十四卦排列原理就是在阐释自然规律和人事规则,既简单又朴素,里面没有神机。

四.邵雍《圆图》卦序

  《方圆图》源自北宋邵康节。

  外层《圆图》,象征天,主要用于阐释天象的运转规则,以及天体运行所导致的“二十四节气”。

  其中,乾、坤二卦分别代表天和地;坎、离二卦分别代表日和月。剩余60卦,每卦代表6天,6×60=360天,恰好一年(每卦六爻,一爻代表一天)。

  5天又为一候,3候为一气,6候为一节,正好一年十二个月,二十四节气,七十二候。

  《圆图》中,天在上,故《乾》卦居南;地在下,故《坤》卦居北;日出东方,故《离》卦居东;月上西天,故《坎》卦居西。

  综上简述,《圆图》是研究天象的,而不能算作六十四卦卦序。

  按照先天八卦次序:乾一、兑二、离三、震四,天道左旋;巽五、坎六、艮七、坤八,地道右旋。

  六十四卦排序如下图:

3.jpg

    1.左旋三十二卦

  乾1、夬2、大有3、大壮4、小蓄5、需6、大蓄7、泰8;

  履9、兑10、睽11、归妹12、中孚13、节14、损15、临16;

  同人17、革18、离19、丰20、家人21、既济22、贲23、明夷24;

  无妄25、随26、噬嗑27、震28、益29、屯30、颐31、复32;

    2.右旋三十二卦

  逅33、大过34、鼎35、恒36、巽37、井38、蛊39、升40;

  讼41、困42、未济43、解44、涣45、坎46、蒙47、师48;

  遁49、咸50、旅51、小过52、渐53、蹇54、艮55、谦56;

  否57萃58晋59豫60观61比62剥63坤64。

五.邵雍《方图》卦序

  《方圆图》中的《方图》,象征大地(参阅上图内层),主要阐释地球的变化。因此,也不算是六十四卦卦序。

  《山海经》云:“共工触不周山,使柱折,地维缺,天倾西北,地陷东南。”

  意思是:共工氏大怒,撞击不周山,导致天柱断毁,大地四角凹陷,于是,天向西北倾斜,地球东南方沉陷。

  “天倾西北,地陷东南”,因此,《方图》的西北方(右下角)为《乾》卦,为天;东南方(左上角)为《坤》卦,为大地。

  延而伸之,东北方(左下角)为《泰》卦,阴阳交合,预示万物复苏,即将进入生机勃勃的景象;西南方(右上角)为《否》卦,天地不通,预示万物收敛,即将转入萧杀凋零的季节。

  《方图》其实很有意思,例如《临》,天色黎明,太阳即将出现;《明夷》,太阳即将在地平面上升起来。等等。但这不是本文所要讨论的课题,在此不再赘述。

六.京房卦序

  六十四卦“八宫排序法”,出自西汉时期的京房,距今已2000年之久。

  八宫分为阳四宫和阴四宫。阳四宫以“乾、震、坎、艮”为统帅;阴四宫以“坤、巽、离、兑”为统帅。

  每宫以一个八纯卦为首,统领其它七卦。例如乾宫,统领“逅、遁、泰、观、剥、晋、大有”七卦。

  那么,八纯卦依据什么统领其它七卦呢?很简单,以八纯卦为基础,为第1卦。初爻变,为第2卦;二爻变,为第3卦;三爻变,为第4卦;四爻变,为第5卦;五爻变,为第6卦;四爻变,为第7卦;下卦一次性全变,为第8卦。

  其中,第7卦叫游魂卦、第8卦叫归魂卦。既然京房给这两个卦分别起了不同的名字,在实际预测中就有其特别的意义。此非本文主题,不再赘述。

  八宫六十四卦排序法,为学易者所熟知,它是《周易》的一个分支,主要用于八卦六爻纳甲预测。这种卦序只有在六摇课预测时才有实用价值。因此,也不算是传统上的六十四卦卦序。

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