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《周易》第四十五卦,泽地萃

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【绪言】

  《周易》第四十五卦《泽地萃》。六爻纳甲法属于兑宫第三卦,五行属金。

  上一卦《天风姤》,认识新事物,结识新朋友,从而积淀智慧,聚拢人心,因此,此卦为《泽地萃》。

  《萃》卦,聚集的意思。寓意聚集、汇聚、混集、精华。

  卦象叙述方式:号令始终不变,百姓有据可依;上司引荐,神前宣誓,立志效忠;人员众多,难以管理;如日中天,要以身作则;虽有立身之地,但要戒躁戒傲;孤立无援,悲伤叹息,知道危险,自然没有灾祸。

  积累智慧,聚拢人心,扩大交际,提升身份,因此,第四十六卦为《地风升》。《泽地萃》与《地风升》互为综卦。

  泽地萃.jpg

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗萃,亨。王假①有庙②,利见③大人④,亨,利贞。用大牲⑤,吉,利有攸往。

  ①假:借助。②庙:供奉祖先的地方。③见:会见。④大人:贤达之人。⑤大牲:敬神用的大型家畜。也指丰盛的供品。

  译文

  卦辞:萃卦,亨通。君王凭借先人的老资本,有利于接见贤达之士,顺利,适合把这种正确的做法持续下去。用牛头供奉先人,更能彰显自己的诚信,吉利,适合有所谋为。

  辨析

  1.卦辞大意:萃卦亨通。作为君王,应该借助先辈的资本,缅怀老一辈的功勋,时常去庙中诚信祭拜,让众臣看在眼里,心服口服。并会见那些三朝元老,多听听他们的意见,才能万事亨通。适宜把这种作风持续下去。祭拜祖先的时候,如果诚心诚意地摆上丰盛的供品,更能使得众臣折服,吉利,适宜有所谋为,发展下去。

  2.所谓“庙”,供奉祖宗的处所,这里指祖宗的资本。

  3.所谓“大人”,贤达之士。这里指德高望重的老臣。

  4.所谓“用大牲”,牲,祭祀用的家畜,比如牛、羊、猪。大牲,所有家畜中,牛的体型最大,所以叫大牲。为什么要“用大牲”,因为这样做显得更加诚信。这是表演给人看的伎俩。

  〖彖曰〗萃,聚也。顺以说①,刚中而应,故聚也。王假有庙,致②孝享③也。利见大人亨,聚以正也。用大牲吉,利有攸往,顺天命④也。观其所聚,而天地万物之情⑤可见矣。

  ①顺以说:顺利带来喜悦。②致:诚心做到。③孝享:将孝心献上,指祭拜。④天命:自然规律。⑤情:本性,道理。

  译文

  彖曰:萃卦,聚集的意思。之所以顺利能够带来喜悦,那是因为刚正的品德顺应了民心,因此,天下人才能欢聚在一起。君王借助先人的资本,那是因为他能够诚心诚意的祭拜先人。利于接见贤达之士,那是因为这样做能够积聚正确的治国道理。用牛头祭拜祖先吉利,适宜有所谋为,那是因为这样做能够顺应大自然的规律。观察萃卦所聚集的含义,就能发现天地万物变化的道理。

  辨析

  所谓“王假有庙,致孝享也”,大意是,为了控制天下,让臣民依顺,去庙堂烧香,诚心祭拜,把臣民所敬仰的已故先人的事迹再次搬出来,缅怀其功德,从而影响天下臣民。

  〖象曰〗泽上於地,萃。君子以除①戎器②,戒③不虞④。

  ①除:治理。②戎器:兵器。③戒:戒备。④不虞:料想不到的事。虞,预料。

  译文

  象曰:上卦为兑为泽,下卦为坤为地,沼泽汇聚于大地之上,称作萃卦。君子因此受到启发,修整兵器,保持警惕,以备不虞。

  辨析

  沼泽之中,各种生物聚集在一起,就像社会上黑道白道,鱼龙混杂。因此,圣人才说修整兵器,以备不虞。

  

【爻辞】

  〖初六〗有孚不终①,乃乱乃萃②。若③号④一⑤,握⑥为笑,勿恤,往无咎。

  〖象曰〗乃乱乃萃,其志乱也。

  ①有孚不终:信念不能坚持到底。有孚,志向,信念。②乃乱乃萃:则乱成一团。乃,就,则。③若:顺从,服从。④号:号令。⑤一:统一。⑥握:握手交流。

  译文

  初六:志向不能始终如一,各种乱子和分歧就会集中显现出来。大家顺从一个统一的号令,彼此就会握手言欢,如此,则无须忧虑,大胆前行,没有灾祸。

  象曰:乱成一团,那是因为自己首先动摇了志向。

  〖六二〗引①吉,无咎。孚②乃利用禴③。

  〖象曰〗引吉无咎,中未变也。

  ①引:引荐。②孚:(表达)效忠。③禴:同“礿”,读yuè,夏日祭祀。

  译文

  六二:得到上司的引荐,吉祥如意,不会出错。宣誓效忠就应该在夏祭的仪式中进行。

  象曰:得到上司的引荐,吉祥如意,那是因为自己中规中矩的思想没有改变。

  辨析

  1.所谓“引吉”,六二爻与六五爻阴阳呼应,六五爻为君位,为上司,所以说“得到了上司的引荐”。

  2.别人引荐你,你就应该表达一下决心。所以,借助夏祭的仪式,把自己的内心想法表达出来,让大家都知道。也就是所谓的“宣誓”。古代有宣誓,今天也有宣誓,比如入党宣誓、入职宣誓,等等。

  3.所谓“孚”,凡心中所想均作“孚,多指诚信、志愿。

  〖六三〗萃如嗟如①,无攸利。往无咎,小吝②。

  〖象曰〗往无咎,上巽也③。

  ①萃如嗟如:人员聚集,引起忧虑。嗟,读jiē,叹息。②吝:耻辱。③上巽也:比喻上面的风气。

  译文

  六三:人多嘴杂,不易领导,难免让人叹息,这没有任何好处。前去发展本身没错,但此时会给自己带来耻辱。

  象曰:前去发展本身没错,原因当下就是这种风气。

  辨析

  1.六三爻阳位阴居,不正。

  2.所谓“上巽也”,六三、九四、九五,合起来是巽卦。巽为风,故为风气。

  〖九四〗大吉,无咎。

  〖象曰〗大吉无咎,位不当也。

  译文

  九四:大吉,没有任何不利。

  象曰:大吉,没有任何不利,然而,不要忘了自己的身份和位置。

  辨析

  1.九四爻阴位阳居,不正,但处于宰相之位,上近(九五)君王,下有众人(坤卦)追随,一人之上万人之下,所以说大吉。

  2.九四爻处在这种举足轻重的位置上,首先要摆正自己的心态,诚辅君王,体恤百姓,才能使自己处于最佳状态,以免招来祸害。

  〖九五〗萃有位①,无咎。匪孚②,元③永贞,悔亡。

  〖象曰〗萃有位,志未光也。

  ①萃有位:天下有自己的位置。萃,聚集,表示所有;有位,有一个合适的名位。②匪孚:不但要诚信。匪,不仅,不但。③元:本初,根源。

  译文

  九五:天下有自己的立身之地,自然是没有灾祸。身处君位,不但要言行一致,还要从根源上永保纯正,才会让自己曾经的悔恨逐渐消失。

  象曰:天下有自己的立身之地,意思是说自己的志向还没有发扬光大。

  辨析

  1.所谓“萃有位”,五爻是萃卦的主要位置。

  2.九五为君位,身处君位,当然要“言行一致,永保纯正”。那是因为当前自己的志向还没有发扬光大。

  〖上六〗齎①咨②涕咦③,无咎。

  〖象曰〗齎咨涕洟,未安④上也。

  ①齎,同“赍”,读jí,满腹,怀着。②咨:读zī,心有疑问。③涕洟:眼泪和鼻涕。洟,读yí,鼻涕。④安:安乐,舒适。

  译文

  上六:满怀狐疑,悲伤流泪,自己知道自己有危险,自然没有灾害。

  象曰:满怀狐疑,悲伤流泪,那是因为自己在上面没有获得安乐。

  辨析

  1.《王注》:“处‘聚’之时,居于上极,五非所乘,内无应援。处上独立,近远无助,危莫甚焉。若能知危之至,惧祸之深,忧病之甚,至于‘涕洟’,不敢自安,亦众所不害,故得‘无咎’也。”

  2.所谓“齎咨涕洟”,怀着满腹的疑问,哭泣流涕。齎,怀着;咨,心有疑虑,希望获得答案;涕,鼻液;洟,眼泪。

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