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《周易》第四十四卦,天风姤

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【绪言】

  《周易》第四十四卦《天风姤》。六爻纳甲法属于乾宫第五卦,五行属金。

  上一卦《泽天夬》,无论是自愿疏财,还是被动疏财,只要钱财广施天下,就能结识更多的朋友,更深层地认识世界,因此,此卦为《天风姤》。

  《泽天夬》与《天风姤》互为综卦。思想开放,博施济众,就会结识新人新事物,从而改变自己的世界观,人生观,价值观。

  《姤》卦,读gòu,女+后,本义后娶的女人,寓意不是原配妻子,不是发小知己,不是熟识事物。不期相遇,需要加深认识的意思。寓意邂逅、接触、结识、建交、学习、探索。

  卦象叙述方式:大脑要有一根刹车线,遇事三思而行;为人吝啬,不舍得花钱招待客人,那将孤单无助;遇到困难,无人帮忙;家境贫寒,朋友疏远;中规中矩也无法摆脱生老病死的自然法则;做事不要做绝,要留余地。

  结识新朋友,认识新事物,从而扩大了交际,积聚了智慧,因此,第四十五卦为《泽地萃》。《泽地萃》与《地风升》互为综卦。

  

天风姤.jpg

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗姤,女壮①,勿用取女②。

  ①壮:强壮,凶悍。②取女:娶妻。取,同“娶”。

  译文

  卦辞:姤卦,女人性情凶悍,不要娶之为妻。

  辨析

  1.《夬》卦,五阳在下,一阴在上,叫“刚决柔”;《姤》卦,一阴在下,五阳在上,叫“柔蚀刚”。卦爻,均从下向上进行,所以,《夬》卦阳刚取代了阴柔;《姤》卦阴柔取代了阳刚。

  换句话说,《夬》卦五阳在下,逐渐向上克伐,最后成了《乾卦》,众阳也;《姤》卦一阴在下,逐渐向上侵蚀,最后成了《坤》卦,众阴也。

  《姤》卦只有一阴,不可小觑。日积月累,不断侵蚀,最终取代了阳刚,就像“大堤溃于一蚁之穴”一样。

  2.《姤》卦,表面意思是“相遇”,但不是一般的相遇。比如再娶之妻,年纪轻,人漂亮,性格刁,所以,这种相遇很难像结发夫妻那样相濡以沫;结识新友,相互了解不深,所以,这种相遇在短时间内很难达到像亲兄弟那样患难与共;接触新事物也是一样,比如买个新手机,要摸索一段时间,才会运用自如。换了一辆车,是手动挡还是自动挡,这都要熟悉一下。所有这些,都是《姤》卦的喻义。

  〖彖曰〗姤,遇也,柔遇刚也①。勿用取女,不可与长②也。天地相遇,品物③咸章④也。刚遇中正⑤,天下大行⑥也。姤之时义大矣哉!

  ①柔遇刚也:遇到阴柔侵蚀阳刚。遇,相遇。根据卦义,具有相遇后被侵蚀的意思。②不可与长也:不可能与她能够长久地生活在一起。③品物:万物,指自然界不同的物种。品,物品,特指器物。物,物品,特指生物。《乾卦》亦有,详细点此查看。④咸章:全部呈现出来。咸,全部。章,有规则,明显,丰富的纹理。⑤刚遇中正:阳刚遇到中规中矩的阴柔之气。中正,指阴爻中正。⑥大行:做大事。

  译文

  彖曰:姤卦,相遇的意思,卦义是说柔顺逐渐侵蚀了阳刚。不要娶之为妻,那是因为与她生活不可能会长久。天地相遇,各类物种才能丰富地呈现出来。阳刚遇到了合适的阴柔之气,才得以昂首阔步走天下。姤卦的现实意义太大了!

  〖象曰〗天下有风,姤。后①以施命②诰四方③。

  ①后:君王。②施命:设立法令。施,设置。命,诏令。③诰四方:昭告四方。诰,上级告知下级,通告的意思。

  译文

  象曰:上卦为乾为天,下卦为巽为风,风行天下,无所不遇,称作姤卦。君王由此得到启发,颁布法令,昭告天下。

  

【爻辞】

  〖初六〗系于金柅①,贞吉。有攸往,见凶,羸②豕孚③踟躅④。

  〖象曰〗系于金柅,柔道牵也⑤。

  ①系于金柅:拉住刹车,放慢速度。系,拉。于,介词,住,到。金柅,刹车。②羸豕:瘦弱的猪。羸,读léi,瘦弱,疲惫。③孚:诚信,引申为憨实。④踟躅:读音chízhú,进退不定,犹豫不决。⑤柔道牵也:被绳子牵住。

  译文

  初六:连好刹车制动器,速度才能有效控制,这样做吉祥。前进没有刹车,一定会遇到危险,就像一头愚蠢的瘦猪一样,盲目奔走而没方向。

  象曰:连接刹车制动器,用一根绳子就能拉住刹车。

  辨析

  1.金柅:金属刹车装置,或是坚硬的刹车装置。柅,读nǐ,古代木质的刹车装置。

  2.所谓“系于金柅”,比喻三思而行,不可莽撞。

  3.所谓“踟躅”,进退不定。向前跑几步,向后倒几步,或是原地转几个圈儿。如果开车,就要安装刹车器,以免跌入深沟;如果做事,要充分考虑,以免做错。

  4.所谓“柔道牵”,初六阴爻,寓意刹车线;九二阳爻,寓意刹车装置;所谓“柔道”,指初六爻,喻义刹车线;所谓“牵”,动词,指拉住刹车。

  初六阴爻、九二阳爻,阳爻被阴爻牵制,这正是刹车之象。用一根刹车线连接刹车装置,拉紧刹车线,刹车装置立即发挥作用,控制车轮前行。

  5.爻辞大意:一个刚正无畏的男人,身边要配一个文雅贤淑的女性。当你面对事务的时候,她会提出一个合乎情理的建议,不至于让你把事情办砸。车辆安装刹车线,得以有效控制车速。大脑有一根刹车线,那是遇事三思,该干则干,说停就停。

  〖九二〗包①有鱼,无咎,不利②宾③。

  〖象曰〗包有鱼,义不及宾也。

  ①包:读páo,通“庖”,厨房,也可以翻译为家中。《孟子·梁惠王上》:“庖有肥肉。”明·归有光《项脊轩志》:“客逾庖而宴。”②不利:不把好处给于。③宾:贵客。

  译文

  九二:家中有鱼,这本来就很正常,但他不舍得用美味来招待宾客。

  象曰:家中有鱼,意思是说不舍得给客人吃。

  辨析

  1.包有鱼:厨房里有鱼,也可以翻译为家中。喻义家中生活富足。

  2.义不及宾也:不舍得给客人吃。初六爻为阴,九二爻为阳,在情感上,九二爻被初六爻所控制,美味佳肴都给了初六爻,所以说,不舍得给客人吃。

  3.爻辞大意,自己生活富足,但为人吝啬,不懂得“花钱赚人气”的道理。

  〖九三〗臀无肤①,其行次且②。厉③,无大咎。

  〖象曰〗其行次且,行未牵也④。

  ①臀无肤:臀部没有皮肤。指臀部长疮,即“坐板疮”。②次且:且走且停,比喻行走困难。次,退,停。且,又。③厉:严重。④行未牵也:走路没人扶。牵,扶。

  译文

  九三:臀部长疮,走起来十分艰难。这种病虽然很严重,但不会造成什么大错。

  象曰:走起来十分艰难,那说明走路的时候没人扶你。

  辨析

  1.所谓“臀无肤,其行次且”,《泽天夬》九四爻也有此句,详细查看。喻义遇到了困难。

  2.九二爻,喻义吝啬钱财。如果吝惜钱财,当自己遇到了困难的时候,也没人愿意出手帮你。

  〖九四〗包无鱼,起①凶。

  〖象曰〗无鱼之凶,远②民也。

  ①起:开始。②远:疏远。

  译文

  九四:家中没有鱼,不利可能会产生。

  象曰:家中没有鱼所带来的不利,那是因为自己困难,别人不会接近你。

  辨析

  1.所谓“包无鱼”,厨房里没有鱼,喻义生活贫困,没有财力结交朋友。

  2.家境贫寒,生活贫困,自然没有朋友接近你。

  〖九五〗以䄫①包瓜②,含章③,有陨自天④。

  〖象曰〗九五含章,中正也。有陨自天,志不舍命也⑤。

  ①䄫:读qǐ,通“芑”,杂草,野菜。②包瓜:把瓜遮掩起来。③含章:内含美丽的花纹。比喻内在的品德。含,包含。章,花纹。《坤》六三亦有此词,详细点此查看。④有陨自天:腐烂来自季节的变换。陨,通“殒”,死亡,多用于政要,名人。这里引申为腐烂。天,季节变换。⑤志不舍命也:说明离不开自然法则。志,说明,证明。命,法则。

  译文

  九五:瓜生在丛生的杂草之中,隐约能看到它那美丽的花纹,但是,季节变换依然改变不了腐烂的结局。

  象曰:九五爻之所以内含美丽,原因是生在杂草之中,中规中矩。季节变换改变不了腐烂的结局,那说明万物都离不开大自然的法则。

  辨析

  世间万物,贵重者皆隐藏。所谓“以䄫包瓜”,意思是说“瓜生在丛生的杂草之中”,不细看就看不见。

  《易经》原文历经数千年,佚失再补,难免失误。现传爻辞写作“以杞包瓜”,“杞”有三种意思,第一枸杞,第二杞柳,第三地名。于是有人解释说:“用柳条把瓜包起来。”结合实际,无论是香瓜还是西瓜,怎么可能会用柳条包起来呢?柳条又怎么包呢?即便这是比拟手法,又有什么意义呢?

  仔细考证,“杞”与“䄫”字形相近,又同音。“䄫”是“芑”的异体字,本义是谷子、野菜、杂草、狗尾草。理顺了字义,就容易理解了。瓜田里,野菜和狗尾草甚多,瓜体往往藏在草丛之中,以掩身形。虽然藏在茂密的草丛之中,但是,它们却无法抗拒四季的变换。到了秋季,野草枯萎,瓜体萎缩,所以才说:“有陨自天。”就是说,即使是非常爽口的西瓜,由于季节的变化,也脱离不了陨落的命运。

  比如一代歌后邓丽君,人漂亮,歌声甜,然而,四十三岁就香消玉殒了。

  〖上九〗姤其角①。吝,无咎。

  〖象曰〗姤其角,上②穷③吝也。

  ①角:牛羊头上坚硬的角,喻义强硬。②上:指上九爻,喻义前进,向上,继续。③穷:尽头。

  译文

  上九:像公牛头上的角那样强硬,这会给自己带来悔恨,但也不至于犯什么大错。

  象曰:像公牛头上的角那样强硬,再持续下去自己就没了后路,所以,会给自己留下悔恨。

  辨析

  所谓“上穷吝也”,就是说做事情不能做绝,做绝了等于没有给自己留下后路,所以说“上穷”,上,就是再继续的意思;穷,就是没有路了。

  一个朋友去讨账,第一次就破口大骂,欠账方无法忍受,两人随即争吵起来,僵持不下。如果给对方留点余地,对方毕竟是欠债方,不至于马上翻脸。下一次再找他讨账的时候,那是理所应当的。然而,一剂药下去,就把对方给毒死了。下一步,只有对簿公堂。对簿公堂又有何用?因为她真的没钱,官司即使赢了,法院也无法执行。

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