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《周易》第四十二卦,风雷益

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【绪言】

  《周易》第四十二卦《风雷益》。六爻纳甲法属于巽宫第四卦,五行属木。

  上一卦《山泽损》,遭遇挫折,蒙受损失,才会警醒起来,凭借在挫折中积累下来的经验,千方百计让自己增加收益,因此,此卦为《风雷益》。

  《山泽损》与《风雷益》互为综卦。有上坡就有下坡,有损失就有增益。损益相互转化,是自然规律。

  《益》卦,增益的意思。寓意丰收收获获益、增加、增强、财富、得助、补给、资助、好处、恩惠、满溢。

  卦象叙述方式:努力工作,大有作为;获得财富,诚祀上天;赈济灾民,执政清廉;上报朝廷,措施得当;喜获援助,德成天下;妥善安排,方能安稳。

  收入持续增长,日进斗金,吃用不尽,必然挥金如土。面对天灾人祸,可能是慷慨解囊,也可能是无奈援助,以致钱财流向五门六路。就像河道水满,必然决口一样,因此,第四十三卦为《泽天夬》。《泽天夬》与《天风姤》互为综卦。

  

风雷益.jpg

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗益,利有攸往,利涉大川①。

  ①涉大川:渡大河。比喻创建伟大的事业。

  译文

  卦辞:益卦,适宜有所谋为,适宜创建伟大的事业。

  〖彖曰〗益,损上益下①,民说无疆②。自上下下③,其道大光④。利有攸往,中正有庆⑤。利涉大川,木道乃行⑥。益动而巽⑦,日进无疆⑧。天施地生⑨,其益无方⑩。凡益之道,与时偕行。

  ①损上益下:减损贵族,救助穷人。②民说无疆:人民兴奋不已。说,通“悦”。无疆,无限。③自上下下:来自上层社会对下层社会的帮助。④其道大光:这种执政方针必然大放光芒。⑤中正有庆:中规中矩才能成功。庆,成功。⑥木道乃行:木舟渡水,顺风而行。⑦益动而巽:需要帮助的时候,政府就会给予支持。⑧日进无疆:每天收益无限。⑨天施地生:上天施加能量,大地生化财富。⑩其益无方:这种帮助惠及各方。无方,所有方位都包括,指无所不包。

  译文

  彖曰:益卦,减损上层社会,救助天下穷人,全国人民欣喜不已。国家惠及人民,其执政方针必然大放光芒。利于有所谋为,那是指只有中规中矩的施政理念才能获得成功。利于渡过大河大川,那是比喻治理天下就像乘坐木舟一样,顺风前行。人民需要的时候,政府就给予帮助,人民得到了资助,政府也得到了拥护。这就像上天施加能量,大地生化财富,它惠及各地各方一样。大凡天下增益的规则,都是与时节变化息息相关的。

  辨析

  1.《益》卦,是由《否》卦演变而来。

  2.《损》卦,损下益上。点此查看;《益》卦,损上益下。一损一益,完全相反。损下益上,比喻官府盘剥百姓。损上益下:比喻国家惠及百姓。上,喻义上层社会,指国家、官府、富人。下,喻义下层社会,指百姓、穷人。

  3.所谓“损上益下”,《否》卦上卦之乾,三个阳爻,九四爻下行而来,变坤为震,成为《益》卦。

  4.所谓“自上下下”,来自上层社会对下层社会的救助。第一个“下”,动词,下放,给予;第二个“下”,名词,下层社会。

  5.所谓“木道而行”,乘坐木舟,顺水而行。寓意顺民意。《益卦》上巽下震,均为木,所以,比作“木舟”。

  6.所谓“益动”,《否》卦九四爻下行而来,相当于收益。变坤为震,震为动,所以说“益动”。益动,可以译作“需要帮助的时候”。益,金钱帮助;动,可以译作“需要”。

  7.所谓“而巽”,《否》卦九四爻下行而来,乾卦变成了巽卦,巽为顺从。而巽,可以译作“政府给予支持”。巽卦在上,表示政府;巽卦为顺,表示支持。

  8.所谓“日进无疆”,这里是说,不但老百姓得到了好处,政府也得到了人民的拥戴。为什么?“无疆”,没有边界,无所不包的意思,一般用于国家。所以说,政府和人民都得到了好处。所以,它并非是简单的“每天收获无限”。

  9.所谓“天施地生”,上天施加能量,大地生化财富。但此卦并没有天地乾坤,怎么说“天施地生”呢?原因在于,《否》变化,成了《益》卦。因为《否》卦是由乾坤组成,具备天和地。所以说“天施地生”。

  〖象曰〗风雷,益;君子以见善①则迁②,有过③则改。

  ①善:美好的,正确的。②迁:迁徙。引申为模仿,学习。③过:错误。

  译文

  象曰:上卦为巽为风;下卦为震为雷,风雷激荡,称作益卦。君子由此得到启发,遇到美好的事情就去学习,出现了错误就立即改正。

  

【爻辞】

  〖初九〗利用为大作①,元吉,无咎。

  〖象曰〗元吉无咎,下不厚事也②。

  ①大作:辛勤劳作。大,形容努力。②下不厚事也:老百姓不用担负沉重的事务。下,百姓。厚事,沉重的事务。

  译文

  初九:利于辛勤劳作,大吉大利,不会出现任何过错。

  象曰:之所以大吉大利,不会出现任何过错,那是因为老百姓不必关心那些繁复的事务。

  辨析

  1.所谓“大作”,即大力工作。这里指出力人辛勤耕作。

    2.下不厚事也:老百姓不用担负沉重的事务。初爻位于全卦最下方,喻义底层百姓。底层百姓只管赚钱养家,无需承担国家那些复杂而又繁重的事务。

  〖六二〗或①益之②十朋之龟③,弗克违④,永贞,吉。王用亨于帝⑤。吉。

  〖象曰〗或益之,自外来也⑥。

  ①或:有些国家。②益之:援助的财富。③十朋之龟:见“百度百科”。④弗克违:无法拒绝。⑤王用亨于帝:君王用这些财富祭祀上天。王,君王;用,用以,把;亨,同“享”,供奉,祭祀;于,给;帝,上天。⑥自外来也:来自外姓的异族。

  译文

  六二:一些国家送来很多财富,连自己都无法拒绝,永远保持下去,这是好事。君王用这些财富祭祀上天,吉祥。

  象曰:那些给予援助的国家,是来自外姓的异族。

  辨析

  1.王用亨于帝:君王用这些财富祭祀上天。六二爻阴位阴爻得正,与六五爻遥相呼应。六五爻为尊位,喻义最高统治者,所以说是“帝”。

  2.关于“王和帝”。西周时期,国家最高统治者称作“王”,比如纣王、文王、武王;所谓“帝”,是指上天。《呂氏春秋》:“帝者,天下之所适;王者,天下之所往。”《疏》:“帝者,天之一名。天荡然无心,忘于物我,公平通远,举事审谛,故谓之帝也。”

  3.自外来也:来自外姓的异族。《益卦》是由《否卦》演变而来,所以比作“自外来也”。

  西周建立后,为了安抚殷商遗民,封纣王子武庚在河南淇县和汤阴一带建立邶(bèi)国;封纣王兄长微子启在河南商丘一带建立宋国。然而,这些人并不属于姬姓家族,周王朝时刻担心他们叛乱,故有“外来也”一说。

  〖六三〗益之①用凶事②,无咎。有孚中行③,告公用圭④。

  〖象曰〗益用凶事,固有之也。

  ①益之:援助的财富。②凶事:自然灾害,比如洪水、旱灾等。③中行:做事公正,合情合理。④告公用圭:如实向王公禀报灾款发放的明细账目。公,王公。圭,比喻账目细节。

  译文

  六三:财富赈济灾民,这样做不会有错。诚信廉洁,如实地向王公禀报救灾款使用情况。

  象曰:财富赈济灾民,法律原本就有这样的规定。

  辨析

  1.圭:比喻账目。圭,古代日影测量器具,又是计量单位,因此,“圭”,表示准则,账目。

  2.固有之也:法律原本就有这样的规定。六三爻,阳位阴爻而不正。所以,得到了财富,也要用于救灾,自己才能平安无虞。

  〖六四〗中行告公①,从②,利用为依③,迁国④。

  〖象曰〗告公从,以益志也⑤。

  ①中行告公:如实禀报王公。②从:认同,听从。③利用为依:应当把上报内容作为下一步工作依据。依,依据。④迁国:变更居住环境。国,居住地。⑤以益志也:因此,更加增强了自己的信念。以,因此。益,增强。

  译文

  六四:将灾情如实地禀报王公,王公听取了自己的意见,以此作为依据,改变居民环境。

  象曰:上报王公,王公听取了自己的意见,因此,更加增强了自己的信念。

  辨析

  所谓“迁国”,孔颖达认为是“迁都”,这不准确。根据爻辞描述的事实,遭遇自然灾害,不仅限于都城,而是某一区域。因此,老百姓都需要迁离原来的居住地。国,居住地,家乡。

  〖九五〗有孚惠心①,勿问,元吉。有孚惠我德②。

  〖象曰〗有孚惠心,勿问之矣。惠我德,大得志也③。

  ①惠心:帮助之心。②惠我德:帮助我,使我能以建立伟大的事业。德,攀登,功德。《说文》:“德,升也。”《正韵》:“凡言德者,善美,正大,光明,纯懿之称也。”③大得志也:信心倍增。

  译文

  九五:真诚的帮助,不必多问,大吉大利。忠诚的援助,才使我得以建立伟大的事业。

  象曰:真诚的帮助,就不必再问其中的细节了。帮助我,才使我得以建立伟大的事业,因此,更加坚定了我的信念。

  〖上九〗莫益之,或击之,立心勿恒,凶。

  〖象曰〗莫益之,偏辞也。或击之,自外来也。

  ①立心:树立的信心;最初确立的信念。②勿恒:不持久;动摇。③偏辞:言辞过激;一面之辞。

  译文

  上九:不援助它们,甚至还要攻击他们,导致他们失去了信心,凶险。

  象曰:不援助它们,这种说法有些过激。攻击他们,无非还是因为他们是外来的民族。

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