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《周易》第四十一卦,山泽损

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【绪言】

  《周易》第四十一卦《山泽损》。六爻纳甲法属于艮宫第四卦,五行属土。

  上一卦《雷水解》,困难得到了缓解,就会产生懒惰思想。如果一直持续下去,运气滑坡,蒙受损失,因此,此卦为《山泽损》。

  《损》卦,损耗的意思。寓意损害、伤害、损失、减少、伤损、劳损、亏损、消损。

  卦象叙述方式:祈祷神灵,增强能量;保持纯正,不可妄动;交友不易,心要诚信;状态转好,能量增加;获得巨大财富;迈向人生辉煌。

  蒙受了损失,才会警醒起来,凭借在挫折中积累下来的经验,千方百计让自己增加收益,因此,第四十二卦为《风雷益》。《山泽损》与《风雷益》互为综卦。

 

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【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗损,有①孚,元吉无咎。可②贞,利有攸往。曷③之用④?二簋⑤可用亨⑥。

  ①有:存在。②可:适合。③曷:读hé,疑问代词,使用什么?④用:供品祭祀神灵。⑤二簋:简单的两样食物。簋,读guǐ,盛放食物的器皿。⑥亨:同“享”,祭祀。

  译文

  卦辞:损卦,如果心怀诚信,那就大吉大利,也不会出现任何灾患。适合这种精神持续下去,则有利于行动。用什么供品祭祀神灵?摆上两碗简单的食物就可以敬拜了。

  辨析

  1.损卦,损失的意思。当一个人运气走低,蒙受损失的时候,最重要的就是心怀诚信,不可狂妄。只有如此,才会“元吉”。如果打算有所行动,那就去诚心诚意地敬拜神灵,祈求神灵的帮助。

  2.运气差,去敬拜神灵,言外之意是要保持心静,不要急躁。并不是说遭到了损失,敬神就没事了。

  3.二簋:簋是盛放素食的器皿。二簋,意思就是随便摆上两样食物就行了,心诚则灵,不用过于浪费。

    4.用亨:置办供品,祭祀神灵。比喻置办礼物,拜谒贵人。不要单纯地认为就是烧香磕头。

    5.二簋可用亨:意思是,置办薄礼,就能去拜谒贵人。

  〖彖曰〗损,损下益上,其道上行①。损而有孚,元吉无咎。可贞,利有攸往。曷之用?二簋可用享,二簋应有时②,损刚益柔②有时。损益盈虚,与时偕行。

  ①其道上行:它的规律是从下向上运行。②有时:根据适当的时间。③损刚益柔:减少阳刚,弥补阴柔。

  译文

  彖曰:损卦,下人遭遇亏损,所以贵人才能获得了增益,此卦的规律就是“从下向上”运行的。遇到损卦,之所以要心存诚信,那是因为这样做会大吉大利,不至于出现任何灾患。理应把这种精神持续下去,那是因为只有这样做才有利于行动。用什么供品祭祀神灵?简单摆上两碗食物就可以敬拜了。但是,摆上两碗供品也是要选择合适时机的。因为自己付出,弥补别人是要选择最佳时机的。减少和增加,盈余和亏损,都是根据时节变化而变化。

  辨析

  1.所谓“二簋”,两碗食物。意思是,只要心怀诚信,即使供品简单,神灵也不会怪罪。简单而又不多的供品,正符合《损》卦的减损之道。这里的“祭祀”,是指拜见贵人;这里的“供品”,是指礼品。

  2.《损》卦大意是,自己穷困,拿不出珍贵的礼品送人,所以,要心怀诚信,客客气气,拿着薄礼去见人。常言道:“千里送鹅毛,礼轻人意重。”别人也不会过于讨厌你。然而,即使不会过于招人讨厌,但也不会非常招人喜欢,毕竟这是《损》卦嘛,毕竟条件差嘛,毕竟只是一份薄礼嘛。

  3.损下益上,其道上行:削弱了下卦,增加了上卦,它的规律是从下向上运行。下,喻义普通人;上,喻义高层人。《损》卦是由《泰》卦演变而来的,《泰》卦九三爻上升至六爻,变成了《损》卦。

  〖象曰〗山下有泽,损;君子以惩忿①窒欲②。

  ①惩忿:克制心中的怒火。惩,克制。②窒欲:抑制心中的欲望。窒,读zhì,抑制。

  译文

  象曰:上卦为艮为山,下卦为兑为泽,山下有泽,冲蚀山脚,水土流失,所以称作损卦。君子由此得到启发,在这样的状态下,要克制愤怒,抑制欲望,低调做人。

  

【爻辞】

  〖初九〗巳事①遄往②,无咎。酌损之③。

  〖象曰〗巳事遄往,尚合志也④。

  ①巳事:祭祀之事。巳,通“祀”。②遄往:快去参加。遄,读chuán,快速。③酌损之:继续饮酒则有损害。酌,饮酒。损,损害身体。④尚合志也:这种行为符合自己的志愿。尚,崇尚。合,符合。

  译文

  初九:巫师傩舞除灾,快去参加,这没有错。如果继续在家饮酒,对身体则有损害。

  象曰:巫师傩舞除灾,快去参加,那是因为祭祀的主题正符合自己的心愿。

  辨析

  1.所谓“巳事”,祭祀之事。指巫师傩舞,降魔除灾。暗指身体不适,已经到了需要治疗的地步,所以才说快去参加。巳,通“祀”。

  可以肯定,“巳事”是巫师为了治病除灾而举行的法事。如何证明呢?因为孔子已经交待:“尚合志也”,就是说,与上面的六四爻的想法相吻合。那么,六四爻怎么说了呢?六四爻说:“损其疾,使遄有喜。”,疾,就是疾病。

    巳事,巳,上午9点多。古代是祭祀会场,现在可以当做某种“会议”,比如政策宣传大会、各种群众大会、医疗宣传大会。等等。

  每一卦的六个爻辞,都是在讲述一个连贯的故事,几乎没有完全跑题的卦。如果你认为每个爻辞的故事都不一样,那说明你还没有真正读懂它。

  3.所谓“酌损之”,意思是继续饮酒对身体有损害。酌,斟酒的意思。

  4.所谓“尚合志也”,这种做法符合自己的心愿。尚,有两种含义。第一,心目中追崇的目标,叫尚;第二,有“上”的意思。初九爻阳位阳居而得正,上边六四爻阴位阴居也得正,正确与正确,两者遥相呼应,故曰“尚合志”。

  〖九二〗利贞,征凶①,弗损益之②。

  〖象曰〗九二利贞,中以为志也。

  ①征凶:行动凶险。征,远行,寓意行动,谋为。②弗损益之:不能亏损自己,补益别人。

  译文

  九二:适宜坚守纯正,行动必有凶险。不能亏损自己,轻易地把好处送给别人。

  象曰:九二爻之所以适合坚守纯正,那是因为自己以中规中矩的思想理念作为自己的行动原则。

  辨析

  1.时机还没有来到,如果有所行动,就会对自己产生损害,所以说“征凶”。此时,只有“利贞”,才能避免不必要的损失。

  2.为什么“九二爻利贞?原因在于自己秉承着“中规中矩”的思想理念,凡事考虑周全,赔本的买卖不干。

  〖六三〗三人行,则损一人。一人行,则得其友。

  〖象曰〗一人行,三则疑也。

  译文

  六三:三人同行,就会伤害其中一人。一人独行,就能得到志同道合的朋友。

  象曰:独行孤单,内心渴望遇到朋友。三人同行,相互之间就会产生猜疑。

  辨析

  1.《损》卦,是由《泰卦》演变而来。所以,解释六三爻辞,必须要结合《泰》卦进行剖析。

  2.所谓“三人”,《泰》卦的下卦是乾卦,本是三个阳爻,所以,喻为“三人”。

  3.所谓“损一人”,《泰》卦的下卦是乾卦,九三爻上行而去,少了一个阳爻,成了兑卦。兑者,缺也。于是,《损》卦成立,所以说“损一人”。

  4.所谓“一人行”,九三爻上行而去之后,成了《损》卦的上卦的最上爻,是《损》卦上卦唯一的一个阳爻,即艮卦。艮卦一阳二阴,所以说“一人行”。

  5.所谓“一人行,则得其友”,九三爻上行而去之后,成为《损》卦的上九爻,正因为如此,上九爻才能与六三爻阴阳呼应,所以说“得其友”。

    上边剖析,成了绕口令。可是,不这样解释确实难以说清楚。

  〖六四〗损其疾,使遄有喜,无咎。

  〖象曰〗损其疾,亦可喜也。

  译文

  六四:减轻他的疾病,让他快速好转,这不会有错。

  象曰:减轻他的疾病,也是值得高兴的事。

  辨析

  1.初九爻曾说“巳事遄往”,也就是有病快看。就是因为初九爻能够及时参加祈祷,治疗疾病,所以才使得自己的疾病迅速好转。

    2.疾:疾病。这里喻义霉运。

    3.损其疾,就是减轻他的霉运的意思。不要误以为就是患了病。

    周易的卦辞和爻辞,都是在暗示、影射、比喻、喻义、寓意。几乎没有直接叙述的。

  〖六五〗或①益之②十朋之龟③,弗克违④。元吉。

  〖象曰〗六五元吉,自上佑也。

  ①或:有些国家。②益之:给他。益,援助,给予。③十朋之龟:形容很多财富。朋,古代货币单位,相当于“圆角分”。龟,龟壳,比喻财富。《玉篇·骨部》:“龟,货之宝也。”④克违:违反,拒绝。⑤自上佑也:来自上天的庇佑。

  译文

  六五:有些国家给他很多财富,连自己都无法拒绝。大吉大利。

  象曰:六五爻大吉大利,因为那是来自上天的庇佑。

  〖上九〗弗损益之,无咎,贞吉。利有攸往,得臣无家①。

  〖象曰〗弗损益之,大得志也。

  ①得臣无家:得到臣民的拥护,建立大家而忽略小家。得臣,赢得臣民的爱戴。无家,得天下而忘小家。②大得志也:实现伟大的志向。

  译文

  上九:不能亏损自己,把财富拱手让给别人,这样做没有错,保持下去吉祥,有利于成就大事。因此,才能得到臣民的拥护,建立国家而忘记小家。

  象曰:不能亏损自己,把财富让给别人,那样做能够实现自己的伟大理想。

    辨析

    弗损益之:不让自己损失,给别人带去利益。意思是养精畜锐,保守实力。


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