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《周易》第四十卦,雷水解

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【绪言】

  《周易》第四十卦《雷水解》。六爻纳甲法属于震宫第三卦,五行属木。

  上一卦《水山蹇》,当运气不通到极点的时候,自然会得到缓解,因此,此卦为《雷水解》。

  《水山蹇》与《雷水解》互为综卦,有拥堵就有通畅,有曲折就有顺利,有艰辛就有安逸,有穷困就有宽裕。

  《解》卦,缓解的意思。寓意化解、缓解、解脱、放开、禳除、消除、宣示、阐明。

  卦象叙述方式:开端大吉;没有任何付出就获得了财富;由于自己的愚蠢,才遭遇盗贼抢劫;实力不足,需要笼络人心;结交天下所有人;彰显实力,恫吓众人

  困难缓解之后,在人的潜意识之中,就会产生懈怠思想。如此一直持续下去,坐吃山空,必然蒙受损失,因此,第四十一卦为《山泽损》。《山泽损》与《风雷益》互为综卦。

 

雷水解.jpg

 

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗解,利西南。无所往,其来复吉①;有攸往,夙②吉。

  ①其来复吉:回来仍然吉利。其,如果。复,再次,依然。②夙,读sù,提前。含有“恭敬,崇拜”的意思。

  译文

  卦辞:解卦,西南方有利。如果没地方去,回来仍然吉利;如果打算前去投靠,要认真地早做决定,吉利。

  辨析

  1.所谓“利西南”,指西安,周朝的都城。

  周易预测时,这里的“利西南”,不代表西南方就是吉利方位,而是提示你自己选择一个有利的方位。那为什么说“利西南”呢?因为西周的都城在西南方,西周的周文王清正贤德,所以说“利西南”。详细参看。

  2.卦辞大意是:“西南方有利。如果你没有其它地方安身,回来依然吉利。如果你还没有来到西南方,那就快做打算,前来投靠,一定吉利!”

  3.此卦卦辞基于“自我而言”。意思是,西周好,文王好,天下人都来投靠我吧。解放战争期间,我党也曾大力宣传,导致傅作义、程潜、龙云、卫立煌等无数的国民党高级将领投诚。当时的中央政府在西柏坡,位于中国的东北方,那可以称作“利东北”。

  〖彖曰〗解,险以动,动而免乎险,解。解利西南,往得众①也。其来复吉,乃得中②也。有攸往夙吉,往有功也。天地解③,而雷雨作。雷雨作④,而百果草木皆甲坼⑤。解之时义大矣哉!

  ①得众:得到大众的拥护。②得中:获得了正确的位置。③解:缓解旱情。④作:兴起,发生。⑤甲坼:果壳破裂发芽。甲,种子外壳。坼,读chè,裂开,分枝。

  译文

  彖曰:所谓解,有危险才选择了行动,因为提前有行动,所以才摆脱了危险,称作解卦。解卦之所以西南方吉利,那是因为前去西南方就能得到大众的拥护。回来之所以仍然吉利,那是因为自己身处正确的地方。打算前往要早做决定,之所以吉利,那是因为前去投靠就能建功立业。天地缓解,雷鸣雨下。由于雷声阵阵,细雨沥沥,所以,花果草木才都能破壳发芽。解卦的现实意义太大了!

  辨析

  1.险以动:下卦为坎为险,上卦为震为动。意思是,感觉有危险,就要首先行动起来。

  2.动而免乎险:首先行动起来,才能摆脱危险。寓意“先发制人”。

  3.得中:指九二爻。九二爻虽然阴位阳爻而不正,但与六五爻遥相呼应,所以说“复吉”。

  4.天地解:坎震组合,雷鸣雨下,这里指缓解干旱。

  〖象曰〗雷雨作,解。君子以赦过宥①罪。

  ①宥:读yòu,宽容,饶恕,原谅。

  译文

  象曰:上卦为震为雷,下卦为坎为雨,雷声阵阵,细雨绵绵,称作解卦。君子由此得到启发,不但要赦免那些有过错的人,而且还要宽恕那些犯罪的人。

  辨析

  1.所谓“赦过”,赦免那些做事过分的人。赦,免除。过,过分。虽然过分,但尚未达到犯罪的程度。

  2.所谓“宥罪”,宽恕那些触犯法律的人。宥,原谅。罪,罪犯。指已经触犯法律的人。

  

【爻辞】

  〖初六〗无咎。

  〖象曰〗刚柔之际①,义无咎也。

  ①际:相遇,交会。

  译文

  初六:没有任何不利。

  象曰:阴阳交会,其本义就不会发生任何灾难。

  〖九二〗田①获三狐,得黄矢②。贞吉。

  〖象曰〗九二贞吉,得中道③也。

  ①田:在田野中打猎。②黄矢:铜箭头。③中道:做法正确,寓意运气好。中,中庸,指正确的,合适的。道,做法。

  译文

  九二:在田野中猎获三只狐狸,并且把发射出去的铜箭头也捡了回来。纯正而又吉祥。

  象曰:九二爻纯正而又吉祥,那是因为自己的运气好。

  辨析

  1.下卦为坎,为狐;下卦中爻为阳,象征利刃、箭矢。

  2.所谓“得黄矢”,意思是,由于射中了猎物,又从猎物身上取回了射出去的铜箭头。

  3.所谓“中道”,指九二爻位于下卦中间。九二爻虽然阳居阴位而不正,但毕竟与六五爻遥相呼应,所以说吉利。

  〖六三〗负且乘①,致寇至②。贞吝③。

  〖象曰〗负且乘,亦可丑也④。自我致戎⑤,又谁咎也?

  ①负且乘:背着财物坐在车上。②至:到来。这里指围追堵截。③贞吝:做法单纯,招致麻烦。贞,单纯。吝,麻烦。④亦可丑也:不过是丢人罢了。⑤自我致戎:因为自己的过失才招到抢劫。戎,抢夺。

  译文

  六三:背着财物坐在车上,导致贼寇的堵截。这种单纯的做法必然惹来麻烦。

  象曰:背着财物坐在车上,只不过显得愚蠢罢了。因为自己的过失才招到贼寇抢劫,这又是谁的错呢?

  辨析

  1.所谓“负且乘”,意思是背着财物坐在车上。孔颖达疏:“乘者,君子之器也。负者,小人之事也。施之于人,即在车骑之上而负于物也,故寇盗知其非己所有,于是竞欲夺之。”孔颖达的解释未必正确。即使在古代,穷人虽然没有豪华的大车,但普通的牛马车也应该存在。

  这句话应有三种含义,第一,榆木脑袋。第二,炫耀财富。第三,羽翼尚未丰满,骄傲自满招摇过市。即然是无知的人做出了愚蠢的事,那就难免盗贼觊觎。

    2.由于本次被贼寇围堵抢劫,思来想去,原因还是自己的实力不够。因此,下一爻就开始想办法结交朋友,壮大自己了。请看九四爻。

    3.所谓“吝”,本来不舍得,反而最后却舍了出去,这种结果,叫“吝”。寓意“丢人、羞耻、窝囊、无能、憋屈、憋气、惋惜、后悔。”

    人世间,“吝”的现象有很多。比如我有一个朋友,近段时间蹭吃蹭喝,随喊随到。白饭吃的多,自己就应该讲个排场,主动请一回儿,但就是不舍得。一天,另一个朋友约他到饭店,拐弯抹角让他花了好几百。这种消费,本来也应该,但立足于他本人,500元确实不少,因此,不免内心窝囊憋气,这就现象就叫“吝”。

  〖九四〗解而拇①,朋至斯孚②。

  〖象曰〗解而拇,未当位也③。

  ①解而拇:放开手脚。比喻解放思想。②朋至斯孚:朋友相信你才会前来。斯,凭借。孚,信任。③未当位也:没有在恰当的位置上。喻义运气不佳。

  译文

  九四:放开手脚,解放思想,因为朋友看好你的人品,所以才会前来。

  象曰:放开手脚,解放思想,那是因为当前的运气还不算好。

  辨析

  1.所谓“解而拇”,意思是放开手脚。因为自己势力单薄,上一爻才会遭到盗贼的抢劫,因此,现在开始笼络人心,四处联络,交天下所有能交的朋友。与他们诚实沟通,哪怕是虚假的诚信。次数多了,朋友也就多了。

    2.所谓“未当位”,九四爻阳居阴位而不正,但与初六爻遥相呼应。由于位置不正,所以,首先要解放思想,对人诚心诚意,才能“朋至”。

  言外之意,如果一个人的实力强大,运气特好,也无须一味地追求诚信。如果起步之初,或是生意惨淡,那就要诚实守信,赚取人脉。

  比如移动通信、国家电网等大型国企,即使不守信,也照样顺风顺水。又如火车撞人,基本上不用包赔。

  再如2013年2月1日,河南义昌大桥坍塌,造成10人死亡。死者都是两条腿一个脑袋,但政府却说:城市户口赔40万,农村户口最多18万。同命不同价,公然违反《宪法》:“中华人民共和国公民在法律面前一律平等。”如果按照这种理论,山区穷人就不必包赔了。宪法都不算数,诚信还算什么?然而,谁又能不走高速公路呢?

  〖六五〗君子维有解①,吉。有孚于小人②。

  〖象曰〗君子有解,小人退也。

  ①维有解:解脱出来。维,文言助词,用于句中,表示判断。②有孚于小人:倒装句,即“于小人有孚”,意思是,原因是对于小人也有诚信。

  译文

  六五:君子从困境中解脱出来,吉利。原因是对于小人也讲诚信,所以才产生了这样的好结果。

  象曰:君子从困境中解脱出来,小人自然就退却了。

  辨析

  1.所谓“维有解”,是承接上一卦而言。上一卦《水山蹇》,遭遇困境。此卦《雷水解》,寓意从困境中解脱出来。

  另外,“维有解”也是承接九四爻而言。九四爻阳居阴位而不正,说明好运还没有到来,所以要讲究信誉,笼络朋友。到了此爻,已经从困境中解脱出来。能够顺利解脱,原因在于对小人的诚信,所以说吉利。

    2.有孚于小人:原因是对于小人也要讲诚信。这里,赤裸裸地展现了政治家的虚伪。本身,对于小人是不能讲什么诚信的,然而,在自己羽翼未丰之时,他们不论小人还是君子,都要去结交,以便增强自己的力量。羽翼丰满之后,立马变了个面孔,要打击小人,维护君子。

  〖上六〗公用射隼①,于高墉②之上,获③之,无不利。

  〖象曰〗公用射隼,以解悖④也。

  ①隼:读sǔn,凶猛的鸟。暗指有本事的人。②墉,读yōng,城墙,高墙。③获:得到,捕获。④解悖:消除违背自己意愿的人。悖,违背,惑乱。

  译文

  上六:王公在高高的城墙上用弓箭射中一只大鸟,没有任何不利。

  象曰:王公箭射大鸟,那是为了恐吓那些违背自己志愿的人。

  辨析

  1.以解悖也:箭术高超,百发百中,竟然射中了飞行中的猛禽,以此来彰显自己的威力,吓阻那些违背自己意愿的人,使他们不敢轻举妄动。

  2.王公并非是休闲射鸟,而是在展示自己的箭术。箭出鸟落,威慑众人。

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