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《周易》第三十九卦,水山蹇

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【绪言】

  《周易》第三十九卦《水山蹇》。六爻纳甲法属于兑宫第五卦,五行属金。

  上一卦《火泽睽》,家庭不睦,团体不和,心生怨气,离心离德,运气必然蹇滞不通,因此,此卦为《水山蹇》。

  《蹇》卦,蹇,本义瘸子,行动不利。寓意背时、不顺、艰难、险阻、困难。

  卦象叙述方式:前往有阻,返回则安;为国呕心沥血,终获荣誉;前往有阻,返回则必受欢迎;左右为难,命该如此;极度艰难,朋友相帮;前往有阻,返回则大有收获。

  运气不通,做事不顺,这种不利的局面终会得到缓解,因此,第四十卦为《雷水解》。《水山蹇》与《雷水解》互为综卦。

水山蹇.jpg

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗蹇,利西南,不利东北。利见大人。贞吉。

  译文

  卦辞:蹇卦,利于西南方,不利东北方。利于拜见有身份的人。始终保持纯正的作风,才会吉利。

  辨析

  1.下卦为艮为东北方。商周交替时期,文王生活在西安,尊老爱幼,礼贤接士;纣王生活在安阳,荒淫无道,残害忠良。西安至安阳,西南到东北。所以说:“利西南,不利东北。”意思是,西南方的文王贤德,东北方的纣王暴戾。所以,不宜去东北方。

  再者,西周时期,东北方的山东半岛,以及冀东地区都属于域外夷人,所以被蔑称为“东夷”。所谓“夷”,是不开化的意思。因此,也不适宜去。

  2.“运气与和气”是孪生姐妹。现实生活中,一家人整日争吵不休,互生恨意,家运就会逐渐败落。相反,一家人和睦相处,往往所求遂心。

  3.坎为水,为危险。艮为山,为艰难。坎艮合起来,就是艰险。

  〖彖曰〗蹇,难也,险在前也。见险而能止,知①矣哉。蹇利西南,往得中②也;不利东北,其道穷也。利见大人,往有功也。当位③贞吉,以正邦④也。蹇之时用大矣哉!

  译文

  彖曰:所谓蹇,是艰难险阻的意思。发现危险就能当即止步,那是明智的选择。蹇卦利于西南,那是因为前往西南能获得公正廉明的待遇;不利东北,那是因为东北方政局混乱,已经到了穷途末路的境地;利于拜见有身份的人,那是因为前去努力就能建立功绩;所处位置恰当,又能坚守纯正,之所以吉利,因为那样做可以有效地治理国家。蹇卦的现实作用太大了!

  ①知:智慧,明智。②中:中规中矩,合乎法则。③当位:位置恰当。④正邦:治理国家。正,使之正确,治理。邦,国家。

  辨析

  1.看运气得到此卦,首先要保持纯正的心态。第二,不要直接去东北方。如果必须去东北方,可以绕道而行。这也是化解之方。

  2.险在前也:危险就在前。上卦为坎、为水、为险、为前。一条汹涌的大河挡在了面前,自然是“险在前也”。

  3.往得中也:前去就能得到公正的待遇。上卦为坎,坎卦九五爻居中,阳位阳爻而得正,所以说“往得中也”。

  4.其道穷也:那条路到了尽头。下卦为艮、为山、为止、为东北方,前往东北方,山路崎岖,或道路不通,所以说“其道穷也”。

  5.当位贞吉:指上卦九五爻,阳位阳爻而得正,所以说“贞吉”。

  〖象曰〗山上有水,蹇。君子以反身修德。

  译文

  象曰:上卦为坎为水,下卦为艮为山,山上有水,水势向下,称作蹇卦。君子由此得到启发,像山中的瀑布一样,经常冲刷,自我反省,修身立德。

【爻辞】

  〖初六〗往蹇①来誉②。

  〖象曰〗往蹇来誉,宜待也。

  译文

  初六:前往遇到险阻,回来则会安乐。

  象曰:前往遇到险阻,回来则会安乐。因为前往需要等待合适的机会。

  ①往蹇:前去的路上遇到了艰难险阻。②来誉:返回来则会安享快乐。誉,通“豫”,安乐。

  辨析

  往蹇来誉:前往遇到险阻,回来则会安享快乐。坎水为险,艮山为止,发现艰险,停止脚步,返回原地。

  〖六二〗王臣①蹇蹇②,匪躬之故③。

  〖象曰〗王臣蹇蹇,终无尤④也。

  译文

  六二:王室大臣迎难而进,其原因不是为了个人的利益。

  象曰:王室大臣迎难而进,君王最终也不会责怪你。

  ①王臣:王室中辅佐君王的重臣。②蹇蹇:迎难而上。第一个蹇,努力地迎着;第二个蹇,艰难。③匪躬之故:原因不是为了自身。匪,不是。躬,自身。故,原因。④尤:怨恨,怪罪。

  辨析

  六二爻阴位阴爻而得正,与六五爻遥相呼应,相当于辅佐君王的重臣,所以说“王臣”。比如周总理,为国家呕心沥血,夜以继日地工作,这就是“王臣蹇蹇”。周总理把毕生精力都献给了国家和人民,无论今天,或是将来,他都是人们心目中的好总理,所以,孔子说“终无尤也”。

  〖九三〗往蹇来反①。

  〖象曰〗往蹇来反,内喜之也②。

  译文

  九三:前往遇到险阻,就立即返回来。

  象曰:前往遇到险阻,立即返回来,会受到内部的欢迎。

  ①来反:返回。反,通“返”。②内喜之也:你会受到内部的欢迎。内,内部。喜,欢迎。之,代词,他,你。

  辨析

  九三爻阳位阳爻而得正,与上六遥相呼应,因此才说:“你只要回来,我就欢迎你!”

  〖六四〗往蹇来连①。

  〖象曰〗往蹇来连,当位实也②。

  译文

  六四:前往遇到险阻,回来又有困难。

  象曰:前往遇到险阻,回来又有困难,那是因为自己处于恰当而又重要的位置上。

  ①往蹇来连:前往遇到险阻,回来又有困难。连,承接上文“蹇”字,表示困难接连不断。②当位实也:身处恰当而又重要的位置上。实,实在的,掌握实权的,指重要。

  辨析

  1.往蹇来连:有人解释为“前往遇到险阻,回来坐着车子”,认为“连”是“车子”。这样解释不正确。连,接连,用于承接上文“蹇”字,表示困难接连不断。比如,扬雄《解嘲》:“孟轲虽连蹇,犹为万乘师。”

  2.六四爻,阴位阴爻而得正,但全卦没有阳爻呼应,所以,才面临这种左右为难的境地。同时,孔子也认为,六四爻确实当权,并没有虚浮应付。之所以面临艰难,那是因为天命如此!

  3.另外,六四爻位于两个阳爻包围之中。阳爻为实,导致六四爻上也不能,下也不能,所以说“当位实也”。

  〖九五〗大蹇①朋来②。

  〖象曰〗大蹇朋来,以中节也③。

  译文

  九五:困难到极点,朋友伸出了援手。

  象曰:困难到极点,朋友能够伸出援手,那是因为自己能够守节义,中正不变。

  ①大蹇:极度艰难。②朋来:朋友来了。指朋友前来帮助。②以中节也:因为能够守节秉义,中正不变。

  辨析

  所谓“朋来”,朋友前来帮助。六二爻与九五爻相呼应,这里指六二爻。同时,六四爻也是阴爻,紧邻九五爻,也有相合之意。

    所谓“中节”,就是中正不变的意思。

  〖上六〗往蹇来硕①,吉。利见大人。

  〖象曰〗往蹇来硕,志在内也②。利见大人,以从贵也③。

  译文

  上六:前往遇到险阻,回来就能担任重要的职位,吉利。此时,适合拜见有身份的人。

  象曰:前往遇到险阻,回来就能担任重要的职位,那是因为自己的志向就在自己的祖国。适宜拜见有身份的人,那是因为自己理想就是要追随那些高贵的人。

  ①来硕:回来就能担任重要的职位。②志在内也:志向在祖国。志,理想。内,祖国。③以从贵也:因为追随贵人。以,因为。从,追随。贵,贵人。

  辨析

  所谓“来硕”,回来就能担任重要的职位。硕,大。专用于形容果实大、学问大、职位大、名声大、体型肥胖,也用于老鼠肥大。“硕”,虽有“大”的意思,但没见过“硕城、硕虎、硕羊、硕树”一类。这里专指担任重要的职位,成为一名举足轻重的大臣,即“硕臣”、“硕贤”、“硕公”

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