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《周易》第三十八卦,火泽睽

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【绪言】

  《周易》第三十八卦《火泽睽》。六爻纳甲法属于艮宫第五卦,五行属土。

  上一卦《风火家人》,在家歇息,生活拮据,一家人相互埋怨,因此,此卦为《火泽睽》。

  《风火家人》与《火泽睽》互为综卦。长期与家人在一起,第一,存款越花越少。第二,亲热度越来越低,于是,夫妻之间心生怨气,相互指责,甚至争吵不休。

  《睽》卦,心生怨气的意思。寓意怨气、怨恨、争执、指责、反目、背时、怪异。

  卦象叙述方式:马匹丢失,自行返回。见到坏人,敬而远之;机缘巧遇,获得成功;历经磨难,辛苦卖力;结交贵人,诚信交往;人走背运,出现幻觉。

  夫妻不睦,整日争吵,必然导致运气不顺,因此,第三十九卦为《水山蹇》。《水山蹇》与《雷水解》互为综卦。

火泽睽.jpg

  

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗睽,小事吉。

  译文

  卦辞:睽卦,处理一些日常小事还可以。

  辨析

  目前,已经阅读了三十八卦,所有卦辞都离不开“吉利”,但吉利是有前提条件的。比如此卦,凭其字义不吉利,但卦辞却说:办一些小事还是可以的。这说明一个问题,凶的时候,也不是凡事都凶;吉利的时候,也不是凡事都吉。正如老子那句话:“祸兮福所倚,福兮祸所伏。”

  〖彖曰〗睽,火动而上,泽动而下。二女同居,其志不同行。说①而丽乎明②,柔进而上行,得中而应乎刚③,是以小事吉。天地睽,而其事同也;男女睽,而其志通也;万物睽,而其事类也。睽之时用大矣哉!

  译文

  彖曰:睽卦,火势向上,水流下沉,它们的方向截然相反。犹如两个女人睡在一张床上,她们的想法是不会一致的。成功才能换来快乐,所以,做事要循序渐进,谦虚谨慎,寻求适合自己的方向,才能使自己强盛起来,如此,做一些小事才吉利。天地位置本来相反,但它们却有共同的使命;男女性别本来不同,但他们却有共同的思想;万物属性各异,但它们却有相似之处。可见,睽卦的现实作用太大了。

  ①说:读yuè,通“悦”,愉快。指兑卦。②明:光明。喻义成功。指离卦。③刚:阳刚。喻义强盛。指九二爻。

  辨析

  1.《睽》卦,九二与六五相应,这是全卦唯一吉利的地方,因此,《彖辞》大费周折地解释道:“说而丽乎明,柔进而上行,得中而应乎刚。”为“小事吉”找出理论依据。其实,这种理论非常牵强!

  2.“说而丽乎明,柔进而上行,得中而应乎刚”,大意是:“下卦为兑为喜悦,上卦为离为光明,心情喜悦依靠太阳的光芒。于是,六五阴柔向上,占据了恰当的位置,在天空向下照射,与九二爻遥相呼应。”

  《彖辞》的解释,并没有合理的逻辑性,只有强词夺理之嫌。

  〖象曰〗上火下泽,睽。君子以同而异。

  译文

  象曰:上卦为离为光明,下卦为兑为沼泽,火向上,水下沉,相背相离,称作睽卦。君子由此得到启发,从同类的事物中找出它们的不同之处。

  辨析

  1.以同而异:从同类的事物中找出它们的不同之处。同,同类事物。《睽》卦上离下兑,同属阴性,故曰“同”;异,不同之处。《睽》卦上离下兑,虽然同属阴性,但离卦为火,向上。兑卦为泽,向下。故曰“异”。

  2.以同而异,另一个含义是“以异而同”,它们虽有不同之处,但也有共同之处。离兑两卦,同属阴性,它们都需要阳刚之气。离为妇女,兑为少女,都是女人,都需要出嫁男家,这就是它们的共同点

  

【爻辞】

  〖初九〗悔亡。丧马勿逐①,自复②。见③恶人,无咎。

  〖象曰〗见恶人,以辟咎④也。

  译文

  初九:曾经的悔恨消失。就像马丢了,不必寻找,自己会回到家中。出现了坏人,也不会欺负你一样。

  象曰:出现坏人,那是因为你能够提早躲开,所以不会有危害。

  ①丧马勿逐:跑丢的马不必寻找。丧,丢失。逐,寻找。②复:返回。③见:出现,发现。④辟咎:躲开危害。

  辨析

  所谓“见”,读xiàn,出现,指提前发现,所以才不会遭到伤害。“以辟咎也”,辟,就是避开的意思。

  由此可知,“见”是出现,远远地发现的意思。而不是遇见。如果是遇见,那就不用再躲避了。

  〖九二〗遇主于巷,无咎。

  〖象曰〗遇主于巷,未失道也。

  译文

  九二:走在小巷中,竟然也遇到了主人,没有错。

  象曰:小巷中遇到了主人,说明没有走错路。

  辨析

  1.遇主于巷:走在小巷中,竟然也遇到了主人。无巧不成书,无缘不相逢,竟然在小巷中遇到了主人。九二爻阳居阴位而失正,但与六五爻相应,所以,才能见到主人。巷,大街之外通向住户的小胡同。

  2.遇主于巷:比喻运气好,巧遇机缘而获成就。

  〖六三〗见舆曳①,其牛擎②。其人天③且劓④。无初有终⑤。

  〖象曰〗见舆曳,位不当也⑥。无初有终,遇刚也⑦。

  译文

  六三:路上一辆负重难行的大车,那头牛使劲拉着。赶车人不但额头上被刺了字,而且鼻子也被割掉了。那说明赶车人当初有罪,现在已经改过自新了。

  象曰:路上一辆负重难行的大车,那是因为车子没有走在好路上。当初有罪,现在已经改过自新,那是因为他遇到了正派的人。

  ①曳:读yè,拉。②牛擎:牛使劲地拉。擎,读qíng,承受。③天:墨刑,在额头上刺字。④劓:读yì,劓刑,割去鼻子。⑤无初有终:没有开始,但有结果。比喻当初有罪,现在已经改过自新。⑥位不当也:意思是没有走在平坦的大路上。⑦遇刚也:遇到了正派的人。刚,刚正,指正派的人。

  辨析

  1.所谓“见舆曳”,意思是路上一辆负重的大车。见,出现,指路上;舆,大车;曳,用力向前拉,表示沉重。

  2.所谓“其牛擎”,意思是那头牛使劲地向前拉。擎,其含义繁琐,本义用力举起来。这里指路不好走,牛的拖力增大。

  3.位不当也:六三爻阳位阴爻而失正,喻义车辆没有在走在平坦的大路上。六三阴爻,阴者,陷也。寓意路上坑坑洼洼,车辆难行。

  4.遇刚也:遇到了正派的贵人。刚,指上九爻。六三与上九相应。所以,寓意贵人,或是正派的人。

    5.再论“见舆曳,其牛擎”六个字。爻辞写于2500年前,我们很难弄明白古人到底说的是什么意思。如果按照字面翻译,那就是:“看见车辆被拉着,那头牛支撑着。”这便成了笑话,既然如此,何不直接说“见舆牛擎”?因为“曳”和“擎”都有牵引的意思。

  个人认为,这个“曳”字,是载重大,路况差,拉不动的意思;这个“擎”字,是用力拉的意思。车辆本身载重量大,再遇路况不佳,自然难以前行。所以,孔子才说:“位不当也。”

  6.一个曾经受过刑的人赶着牛车,说明此爻曾历灾难不吉利。

  〖九四〗睽孤①遇元夫②,交孚③。厉无咎④。

  〖象曰〗交孚无咎,志行也。

  译文

  九四:一个背运孤独的人遇到了大善人,要真心交往。虽然内心忐忑不安,但没有灾。

  象曰:真心交往就不会有灾,那是因为志在必行。

  ①睽孤:运气不好而导致孤立无援。②元夫:大善人,大绅士。指六五爻。③交孚:诚信相交。④厉无咎:虽然感到担心,但也不会有灾。

  辨析

  1.所谓“睽孤”,运气不好而导致孤立无援的境地。六三爻为阴,六五爻也为阴,九四爻被围在中间,所以说孤立无援。

  2.所谓“元夫”,大男人,大善人,大绅士。元,大的意思;夫,成年男子。九四爻紧临六五爻,五爻为尊,所以,遇到了大善人。

  3.所谓“厉无咎”。普通人与大绅士交往,心中敬畏,言行拘束,所以,心中忐忑不安,但不会有灾。当然,这有一个重要的前提,那就是诚信交往,不可尔虞我诈。

  〖六五〗悔亡,厥宗①噬肤②,往何咎?

  〖象曰〗厥宗噬肤,往有庆也。③

  译文

  六五:曾经的悔恨消失。受到同族的处分和教育,即使去面对又会有什么灾难呢?

  象曰:受到同族的处分和教育,前去领教必有收获。

  ①厥宗:他的宗族。厥,读jué,他的。②噬肤:刺破皮肤,寓意惩罚。可以解释为处分。

  辨析

  1.所谓“噬肤”,刺破皮肤,以示惩罚。根据爻位,六五爻阳位阴居而失正,但毕竟自处尊位。自己犯了点错误,同族人用竹签刺破了他的皮肤,以示惩罚。同族人惩罚同族人,应该是善意的,轻微的。

  2.在《火雷噬嗑》中,六二爻也有“噬肤”一词。根据爻位,六二爻阴爻阴位而得正,同样预示没有遭到严酷的刑罚。详细点此查看

  3.有人解释,“噬肤”是吃肉的意思。“噬肤”一词既然在《周易》中出现,因此,无论在哪一卦中出现,其含义都应该相同。

  〖上九〗睽孤,见豕负涂①,载鬼一车②。先张之弧③,后说之弧④。匪寇婚媾⑤,往遇雨⑥,则吉。

  〖象曰〗遇雨之吉,群疑亡也⑦。

  译文

  上九:一个背运孤独的人,见一头猪在大路上拉着一辆车,车上坐了一群鬼。慌忙拉开弓搭上箭,然后又放下了弓,看上去像是一伙前来迎亲的强盗。再往前走,遇到天降大雨,才放下心来。

  象曰:遇到天降大雨之所以吉利,原因是那些怪异的现象都消失了。

  ①见豕负涂:见一头猪在大路上拉着一辆车。豕,猪。负,承担。涂,道路。②载鬼一车:乘坐一车鬼。③先张之弧:慌忙拉开弓搭上箭。先,首先,根据语境,是慌忙的意思。弧,弓箭。④后说之弧:然后又放下弓箭。说,通“脱”,放开。⑤匪寇婚媾:强盗前来迎亲。⑥往遇雨:往前走遇到大雨。⑦群疑亡也:所有的怪异都消失了。群,众多。疑,怪异。亡,过去,消失。

  辨析

  1.人走背运,有可能看见一些诡异的场景。这也是人走背运的特点之一。

  2.所谓“负涂”,就是在路途上出力的意思。涂,通“途”,道路。《荀子·劝学》:“涂巷之人也。”有人解释为“看见一头猪浑身涂满了泥巴”,但下一句是“载鬼一车”,前后文没有承接关系,所以,不正确。

  3.所谓“匪寇婚媾”,就是强盗娶亲。匪寇,就是强盗。有人把“匪”解释为“不是”,匪寇,即不是强盗。既然不是强盗,那干脆说“迎亲”,何必多此一举呢?曾记得《水雷屯》六二爻也提到过:“匪寇婚媾”一词,详细点此查看

  4.为什么“往遇雨,则吉”?天降大雨,时空彻底改变,那种虚幻的景象就消失了,所以,孔子说“群疑亡也”。

  5.人走背运,可能遇到“梦魇”、“鬼打墙”、“迎亲队伍”、“怪异交谈”、“诡异声响”,等等,但是,一旦遇到时空变换,那种诡异就突然消失了。比如公鸡打鸣,突然有人经过,就会打破那种虚幻诡异的场景。

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