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《周易》第三十七卦,风火家人

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【绪言】

  《周易》第三十七卦《风火家人》。六爻纳甲法属于巽宫第三卦,五行属木。

  上一卦《地火明夷》,太阳落山,黑夜到来。在外无法继续工作,返回家中歇息,因此,此卦为《风火家人》。

  《家人》卦,团聚的意思。寓意国家、家庭、组织、单位、协会、内部、歇息、愉快、轻松。

  《家人》卦一二三四爻,讲述的是治家原则;五六爻讲述的是治国方针。治家原则占用了四爻,治国方针只占用了两爻。说明古人深刻明白一个道理,家庭是人类生活的主要环境,是社会的基本细胞。家庭和谐,社会才能稳定。

  卦象叙述方式:以身作则,治家有方;操持家务,坚守妇德;长幼有序,尊卑有别;勤俭持家,劳动致富;国家完备,政府无忧;恩威并施,严于律己。

  经常在家,坐吃山空。生活拮据,一家人难免相互埋怨,因此,第三十八卦为《火泽睽》。《风火家人》与《火泽睽》互为综卦。

 

风火家人.jpg

 

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗家人,利女贞。

  译文

  卦辞:家人卦,妇女适宜长期守在家里。

  〖彖曰〗家人,女正位乎内,男正位乎外,男女正,天地之大义①也。家人有严君②焉③,父母之谓④也。父父,子子,兄兄,弟弟,夫夫,妇妇,而家道正⑤。正家⑥而天下定矣⑦。

  译文

  彖曰:家人卦,妇女主内,男人主外,男女各就各位,各尽其职,这是人间的大道理。家庭成员中有一个威严的主人当家,意思是说父母。父子、兄弟、姊妹、夫妇,长幼有序,尊卑有别,一个家庭规才能规范。只有端正了小家庭的秩序,社会这个大家庭才会稳定。

  ①天地之大义:人间的大道理。大义,大道理。②严君:威严的主人,父母的代称。③焉:于此,这里指做主。④之谓:说的就是。⑤正:正确。⑥正家:端正家庭秩序。正,动词,端正,使正确。⑦天下定矣:社会稳定。

  〖象曰〗风自火出,家人。君子以①言有物②,而③行有恒④。

  译文

  象曰:上卦为巽为风,下卦为离为火,火旺生风,称作家人卦。君子由此得到启发,说话要郑重其辞,言之有物,做事要踏踏实实,有始有终。

  ①以:介词,关联上文,引出义理,即“根据大自然现象得到了启发”。②言有物:言之有物。③而:连词,并且。④行有恒:做事要保持一定的规则。行,行为举止,做事风格。恒,规则。喻义有始有终,踏踏实实。

 

闲有家.jpg

 

【爻辞】

  〖初九〗闲有家①,悔亡。

  〖象曰〗闲有家,志未变也。

  译文

  初九:建立一个完美家庭,曾经的悔恨就会消失。

  象曰:建立一个完美家庭,意思是说自己的志向没有改变。

  ①闲有家:见辨析。

  辨析

  1.所谓“闲有家”,必须是三层含义,但在译文中无法全部写出来,这是《周易》的特殊性。第一,建立一个完美家庭。第二,空闲时回家休息。第三,家有储备。

  2.所谓“闲”,规范、空闲、防备。

  3.初九爻,是全卦最下爻,表示最初阶段。治家理念,要从开始做起。夫妻组建家庭,双方要在潜移默化中立下规矩,并把良好的家庭传统传承下去。如此,才能“家道正”。常言道:“上梁不正下梁歪,中梁不正垮下来。”这是“闲有家”第一层含义。

  4.初九爻,是全卦最下爻,表示最初阶段。当你在外面遇到了风吹雨打,第一个念头就是回家。这是“闲有家”第二层含义。

  5.初九爻,是全卦最下爻,表示最初阶段。常言道:“家有余粮,遇事不慌。”国有国库,储备了大量的物质,以防不时之需。一个家庭,也是如此。这是“闲有家”第三层含义。

  6.人的一生,历经艰辛。为了生计,在外打拼,除了汗水,就是上司的斥责和有钱人的白眼。回到家中,夫妻宽慰,儿女亲吻,一切烦恼都将烟消云散,所以,家是温暖的避风港,家是心灵的栖息地。

  如果你感觉你的家不是这样,那你的心灵就会遭遇无限的折磨,事业就会面临诸多的不顺。其核心原因是什么?是婚姻。当你占卜时,得到了《家人卦》初爻动,请你阅读译文和辨析,你就该知道怎么做了。

  〖六二〗无攸遂①,在中馈②。贞吉。

  〖象曰〗六二之吉,顺以巽也③。

  译文

  六二:从没想过干一番大事业,只是守在家中洗衣做饭。把这种纯贞的作风坚持下去,吉祥。

  象曰:六二爻之所以吉祥,原因是妻子顺从丈夫,夫唱妇随。

  ①无攸遂:没想过干一番大事业。遂,前往,成就。②中馈:在家做饭。馈,饮食之事。③顺以巽也:妻子顺从丈夫。顺,指六二爻,喻示妻子。以,连词,表示对象。巽,指九五爻,喻示丈夫。

  辨析

  1.六二爻,专一描述妇人的美德。

  2.无攸遂:没想过干一番大事业。意思是说,妇女四门不出,经常守在家中,洗衣做饭,有关外面大事,从不打听不过问。遂,愿望得到满足,称作“遂”。愿望,是个人心中的大目标。愿望得到满足,就能称作“成功”。因此,“遂”是内心活动的外在结果。

  3.顺以巽也:妻子顺从丈夫。六二爻阴位阴爻,得正。九五爻阳位阳爻,得正。二五遥相呼应,一夫一妻,夫唱妇随之象。巽,指九五爻,喻示丈夫。

    4.预示青少年时代,在家玩耍,校园读书,无需考虑生计问题。

  〖九三〗家人①嗃嗃②,悔厉③,吉。妇子嘻嘻④,终吝⑤。

  〖象曰〗家人嗃嗃,未失也⑥。妇子嘻嘻,失家节也⑦。

  译文

  九三:家长治家严厉,儿女就会有所畏惧,吉祥。老婆和孩子们整天嘻嘻哈哈,最终会带来羞辱。

  象曰:家长治家严厉,那是没有失去治家的原则。老婆和孩子们整天嘻嘻哈哈,那就丧失了家庭的礼节。

  ①家人:一家之主。②嗃嗃:读hè,严厉的呵斥声。嗃,通“呵”,专一表示呵斥。③悔厉:内心感觉害怕。悔,担心。厉,危险。④嘻嘻:嘻嘻哈哈不严肃。⑤终吝:最终会带来羞辱。⑥未失也:没有失去治家的原则。⑦失家节也:丧失了家教。节,礼节。

  辨析

  1.家人:指家庭中的主人。九三爻,阳位阳爻,居下卦上爻,表示家长。

    2.预示20至30岁,初出茅庐,涉世不深,所以,才会“嘻嘻”。经常受到父母的批评,所以,才“家人嗃嗃”。

家人嗃嗃.jpg

  〖六四〗富家,大吉。

  〖象曰〗富家大吉,顺在位也。

  译文

  六四:让家庭富起来,是最大的吉利。

  象曰:家庭富起来大吉,那是因为年富力强,万事顺利。

  辨析

  1.顺在位也:六四爻,阴位阴爻,居于全卦中部,表示人生年富力强,万事顺利的阶段,所以说“顺在位也”。也就是处于顺利的位置上。顺,顺利,寓意青壮年。位,所处时间。

  2.预示30至40岁,人已成熟。所以,才有能力“富家”。

  〖九五〗王假①有家②,勿恤③,吉。

  〖象曰〗王假有家,交④相爱⑤也。

  译文

  九五:君王凭借着国家那完备的政治体系,无需过多忧虑,吉祥。

  象曰:君王能够凭借国家的力量,那是因为各部门能够相互合作,相互交流。

  ①假:凭借,仰仗。②有家:完备的政治体系。有,完备。家,国家。③勿恤:没有忧虑。④交:交流协同。⑤相爱:相互关心。爱,爱护,关心。

  辨析

  1.假:凭借。“假”有“大”的意思,即“凭借某种强大的力量”。小人依仗着家庭,就不能说:“小假有家”。就像国家元首相见,一般用“会晤”,而普通人相见,只能称作“见面”。

  2.有家:有,丰富,健全。家,国家。可以翻译成“一个完备的政治体系”。《易·师》:“开国承家。”蔡邕《独断》:“天子无外,以天下为家。”

  3.一个国家,政治体制完备,职能部门齐全,君王自然“勿恤”。恤,忧虑,担心。

  4.交相爱也:部门之间交流协同,官民之间亲密互助。

  《周易》卦辞大多都有好几层含义,不可能都译到正文中。交相爱,交,交流,交往,指各个部门能够相互合作。相爱,既指各部门官员相互尊重,又指官恤民,民拥官。如果全国上下一盘散沙,背心离德,那就谈不上“相爱”了。

    5.预示50岁之后,凭借一生创下的基业,生活无忧,家庭和睦。

  〖上九〗有孚威如①,终吉。

  〖象曰〗威如之吉,反身②之谓③也。

  译文

  上九:诚实守信,体恤百姓,才会在群众中享有崇高的威望,这终究是吉祥的。

  象曰:在群众中享有崇高的威望,之所以吉祥,那意思是说自己能够以身作则,严格要求自己。

  ①有孚威如:诚实守信,体恤百姓,才会群众中享有崇高威望。②反身:转过身去检查自己。就是严格要求自己,自我约束的意思。③之谓:说的就是这个意思。

  辨析

  1.有孚威如:心存诚信,在别人面前才有威望。类似“恩威并施”。

  2.君王面对臣民,称为“有孚”,可见,在远古时期,这个“孚”字,不仅仅是诚信的意思,而且还有关爱的含义。爫+子,爫,读zhǎo,鸟爪。鸟儿抱卵,孵化幼鸟。鸟儿孵卵,都能如期而至,从不失信,故引申为“诚信、相信、信任、信服、信誉”;孵化鸟卵,必施关爱,所以,又引申为“关爱、呵护、怜悯、付出、责任”。

  3.威如:在众人面前有威望。也可以译为,使自己有威望。如,代词,别人,即“让别人感到”,或“展示给众人”的意思。

  “如”字,含义也非常复杂,根据语境随时改变。

  4.反身:转过身去检查自己。如同转过身去面对镜子,观察自己的形象,借镜观形,自我反省。寓意严格要求自己。

    5.预示60岁后的老人,一生之中付出了自己的所有,在儿女面前自然享有崇高的威望。如今,已经迈入老年,闲暇之时,反思曾经的历史,哪些做错了,哪些做对了。

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