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《周易》第三十六卦,地火明夷

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【绪言】

  《周易》第三十六卦《地火明夷》。六爻纳甲法属于坎宫第七卦,五行属水。

  上一卦《火地晋》,旭日东升,奋力前进。然而,日中则昃,黑夜必将到来,因此,此卦为《地火明夷》。

  《火地晋》与《地火明夷》互为综卦,有白昼就有黑夜,有成功就有失败。

  《明夷》卦,光明熄灭。夷,荒蛮,伤害,毁灭的意思。寓意受伤、黑暗、隐藏、愚蠢、落后、堕落。

  卦象叙述方式:天色已黑,鸟儿歇息,但箕子为了自己的理想,旅途奔波,远去朝鲜;左腿受伤,骑马前行;昭王征讨南蛮,大获全胜;深入社会,因地施政;坚持纯正,文明不息;天下兴衰,自然轮回。

  太阳落山,回家休息,因此,第三十七卦为《风火家人》。《风火家人》与《火泽睽》互为综卦。

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗明夷,利艰贞。

  译文

  卦辞:明夷卦,在逆境中适宜坚守纯正。

  〖彖曰〗明入地中,明夷。内文明而外柔顺,以蒙大难①,文王以之②。利艰贞,晦其明也③,内难④而能正其志⑤,箕子⑥以之。

  译文

  彖曰:太阳运行到地下,称作明夷卦。内在博学开明,外在柔弱谦逊,用这样的处世原则去蒙受苦难,文王就是这样做的。在逆境中适宜坚守纯正,隐藏自己的才华,那是说国家处于内忧之时,自己要坚定自己的意志,箕子就是这样做的。

  ①以蒙大难:用这样的方式去蒙受苦难。以,用这种方法,介词,表示承接上文。②文王以之:文王就是这样做的。以,动词,做。③晦其明也:隐藏自己的聪明。晦,隐藏。④内难:内部危难。⑤正其志:端正自己的意志。正,动词,坚定,修正。⑥箕子,人名,纣王的叔父。

  辨析

  1.内文明而外柔顺:内在博学开明,外在柔弱谦逊。下卦为离为内为文明,上卦为坤为外为柔顺。文明,博学开明。

  2.文王:即周文王(前1152年―前1056年)。姬姓,名昌,周朝奠基者,曾演绎八卦六爻。文王在位期间,礼贤下士,广罗人才,国家不断壮大,导致商王朝惶惶不安。因此,纣王把文王关押在羑里。纣王为了试探文王的才智,杀掉他的大儿子伯邑考,做成肉饼赐给文王。文王心知肚明,手捧儿子的肉饼,只能假装愚钝,忍着悲痛咽下儿子的肉。于是,纣王才放下心来。

  身处逆境,不得不隐藏才华,给人一种憨实顺从的样子。

  3.箕子:名胥余,是商纣王的叔父,活动于商周政权更替时期。胥,读xū;箕,读jī。

  箕子辅政期间,纣王骄淫暴虐,不思朝政。箕子见状,苦心谏阻,但纣王始终不听。箕子心如刀绞,索性断发装疯。纣王以为箕子真疯,便把他囚禁起来,贬为奴隶。

  箕子道不得行,志不得遂。为防杀身之祸,隐藏才华,装疯卖傻,期望再度天明,史称“箕子明夷”。明夷,就是时运倒霉,低调做人的意思。孔子在《论语·微子》中说:“微子去之,箕子为之奴,比干谏而死,殷有三仁焉。”意思是说,微子离纣王而去,箕子成了纣王的奴隶,比干直言规劝反而招来杀身之祸。这是殷商时期的三位仁士呀。

  4.光明:光明是文明的象征。淹没了光明,喻义不可展示自己的才华,否则,会给自己招来灾难。

  〖象曰〗明入地中,明夷。君子以莅众①,用晦而明②。

  译文

  象曰:下卦为离为光明,上卦为坤为大地,太阳沉入地下,称作明夷卦。君子由此得到启发,深入社会底层,把自己的才华隐藏起来,才能听到民众的心声。

  ①莅众:走到群众中间。莅,走近观察。多用于上级。②用晦而明:隐藏才华才能明白。用,连词,表示承接上文原理,采用某种做法。晦,隐藏。指隐藏才华。明,清楚。指清楚别人的想法

  辨析

  莅众,用晦而明:大意是,来到人民中间,了解老百姓的心声,不能装腔作势,卖弄学问。要用最朴实的语言跟老百姓沟通,只有这样,老百姓才能说出自己内心的真实想法。

截图20201031095302_副本.jpg

【爻辞】

  〖初九〗明夷①于飞②,垂其翼③。君子于行④,三日不食。有攸往,主人⑤有言⑥。

  〖象曰〗君子于行,义不食也⑦。

  译文

  初九:夜里的鸟儿,已经垂下了翅膀。然而,君子在远去的途中,马不停蹄,三天都没顾着吃饭。打算前往远方,箕子早就立下了誓言。

  象曰:君子出走,那是因为自己不愿意享用那背义之食。

  ①明夷:天黑了。②于飞:飞行的鸟儿。飞,飞鸟。③垂其翼:垂下它的翅膀,指休息。翼,翅膀。④于行:在远行的途中。⑤主人:指“殷商的箕子”。⑥有言:曾经立下誓言。⑦义不食也:不吃背义之食。

  辨析

  1.天黑了,小鸟垂下翅膀,休息了。然而,旅途中的箕子却不敢歇息,继续赶路。

  2.爻辞是在叙述历史故事,但没直接点出人名。

  殷有“三仁”,即微子、箕子、比干。殷商末期,纣王无道,因此,微子出走,箕子装疯,比干被杀。所以,只留下了微子和箕子。爻辞到底是说微子,还是说箕子呢?下面分别探查他们二人的经历。

  1.微子,即微子启。商朝帝乙的长子,纣王的同母庶兄。商纣时期,因其封地于微(今山西潞城东北),建立微国,故称“微子”。

  纣王无道,微子屡劝不听,因此离纣王而去。周武王灭商后,微子拥护周武王,武王感动,封微子于商丘,建立宋国,成为周朝的属国。

  微子的人生经历告诉我们,孔子虽然说他是一位贤仁之士,但是,他毕竟背叛了自己的国家,成了周朝的臣仆。因此,他称不上:“义不食。”

  2.箕子,商纣王的叔父。因其封地于箕(今辽东半岛一带),建立箕国,故称“箕子”。

  公元前1124年,周武王兴兵伐纣,攻入朝歌,商朝灭亡,箕子逃离,隐居箕山(今山西陵川棋子山)。

  周朝建立后,武王找到箕子,恳求治国方针。箕子便将夏禹传下的《洪范•九畴》讲给武王。武王十分钦佩,打算重用箕子。但箕子曾经对微子表过心态:“商其沦丧,我罔为臣仆。”意思是,如今商朝已经灭亡,但我决不做周朝的臣仆,所以,爻辞才说:“有攸往,主人有言”。有言,曾立下誓言的意思。箕子担心武王再来邀请,便带领所属一行人连夜离开箕山,东渡朝鲜,在今朝鲜创立了箕氏侯国。

  微子的人生经历告诉我们,他正符合孔子的那句话:“君子于行,义不食也。”

  3.有攸往,主人有言:打算去往远方,箕子在这之前就已经立下了誓言。主人,指箕子。

  4.义不食也:按照道义,这饭不能吃,即不吃背义之食。意思是,不做商朝的叛徒。

  5.国破家亡之时,微子明哲保身,屈身为周臣,那是标准的殷商叛徒。箕子远渡朝鲜,另立门户,那是标准的“义不食”。

  〖六二〗明夷①,夷于左股②,用拯马壮③,吉。

  〖象曰〗六二之吉,顺以则也④。

  译文

  六二:身处逆境,伤到了左腿,骑马前行,吉利。

  象曰:之所以六二爻吉利,原因是借助了马的力量。

  ①明夷:逆境。②夷于左股:伤在了左腿。股,大腿。③用拯马壮:骑马增加自己的力量,指骑马前行。拯,援助。壮,增强力量。④顺以则也:采取顺从的做法。顺,顺从,指骑马;以,动词,采取;则,方法,指出行。

  辨析

  1.此爻仍在描述箕子。箕子长途跋涉,远去他方,历尽千辛万苦。左腿受伤,或是跑不动了,骑马继续前行。

  2.以则:采取某种方针。则,办法,方针。

  〖九三〗明夷①于南狩②,得其大首③,不可疾贞④。

  〖象曰〗南狩之志,乃大得也⑤。

  译文

  九三:越走越远,向南征讨,最终俘获了他们的首领,但地方治安不可能迅速稳定下来。

  象曰:具备了南征的志向,所以才大有收获。

  ①明夷:喻义越来越远。②于南狩:向南征讨。于,在,去。狩,狩猎,借指征讨。③得其大首:俘获他们的首领。④不可疾贞:不能很快地安定下来。疾,迅速。贞,安定。⑤乃大得也:才大有收获。

  辨析

  1.明夷:没有文明,指南蛮。喻义军队越走越远,远离了文明的京都。打个比方,当今,上海市繁荣昌盛。如果从上海向山区进发,越走越远越偏僻,地区越不发达,越见不到文明的气象。

  其实,明夷有好几个含义。第一,天黑没有了光明。第二,丧失了文明。第三,远离了文明。第四,文明之人受到了伤害。第五,荒蛮不化。第六,社会昏暗。

  2.九三爻辞,讲的是周昭王南征平叛的故事。

  周昭王,周朝第四任君主,名瑕,卒于前977年,生年不详。

  西周初年,虎方、楚蛮和扬越等南方部落都是周王朝的属国。至昭王执政期间(公元前995年-公元前977年),这些部落作乱。昭王曾三次南征平叛,诛杀叛乱头目,所以,爻辞才说“得其大首”。战争中,缴获了大量财富,所以,孔子才说“乃大得也”。

  3.于南狩:向南征讨。《明夷》下卦为离,离为南方,指长江流域一带的湖北、安徽、江西等地。

  4.大首:最大的首领。《明夷》上卦为坤,坤为蛮夷,又为众阴之首,故为“大首”。

  5.疾贞:很快保持稳定的局面。意思是说,擒获了叛乱的头目,占领了他们的土地,但一时还无法稳定当地的治安。

  〖六四〗入于左腹①,获明夷之心②。于出门庭③。

  〖象曰〗入于左腹,获心意也④。

  译文

  六四:深入左侧腹地,获取当地人野蛮的心性。这需要走出去,亲自来到群众中间。

  象曰:深入左侧腹地,是为了获取当地人的想法。

  ①入于左腹:进入左侧腹地。②明夷之心:不开化的心性。心,思想。③于出门庭:需要走出门外。于,需要,在于。④获心意也:获取老百姓的想法。获,取得,指了解。心意,思想和心愿。

    辨析

  1.六四爻,仍是在描述周昭王南征的故事。上一爻平定了叛乱,此爻需要安抚百姓,维持治安。

  2.左腹:华中地区左侧腹地。如图。

  周昭王执政期间,首都在镐京(今西安)。镐京正南是今天的川东地区,正东南是今天的湖北、安徽、江苏。所谓“左腹”,大约应是今天的鄂东、皖南、苏南、浙北、赣北等地。

  周昭王虽然擒获了南蛮的最大头目,但社会并不会很快地安定下来,依然处于混乱状态。为了有效地加以统治,要深入民间,了解他们的风俗,倾听他们的心声,宣传周朝仁政,安抚百姓,因地制宜,制定法规。如此才能做到社会稳定,长治久安。

  2.明夷之心:不开化的心性。明夷,灭失了文明,指蛮夷,古代称江南为“南蛮”。夷,古人认为,中原地区民众开化,社会发达。边远地区经济落后,荒蛮不开,所以,蔑称之为“夷”。

周初地图.jpg

  〖六五〗箕子之明夷①,利贞。

  〖象曰〗箕子之贞,明不可息②也。

  译文

  六五:箕子的文明才智被埋没,适宜把正确的思想坚持下去。

  象曰:之所以箕子要这样坚持下去,那是因为箕子知道文明是不会灭绝的。

  ①明夷:文明被埋没。夷,毁灭,消灭。《囯语•周语下》:“夷其宗庙。”②明不可息:光明不会消失。指文明不会灭绝。息,停止,消失。

  辨析

  箕子掩饰才智,远去他方,再次施展。所以,孔子才说“明不可息也”。实际情况也是如此。据传,箕子到朝鲜之后,建立箕氏国,建房盖屋、开垦农田、养蚕织布、烧陶编竹,并制定法规约束居民。

  〖上六〗不明,晦①。初登于天,后入于地。

  〖象曰〗初登于天,照②四国也。后入于地,失则③也。

  译文

  上六:不是白昼,就是黑夜。国家兴衰也是这样,起初如日中天,之后日沉地下。

  象曰:起初如日中天,光照四方。之后日沉地下,失去了本来的光芒。

  ①晦:夜晚,暗示政权昏暗。②照:照亮,喻义影响力。③失则:失去本来的光芒。则,法则,作用。这里代指太阳的光芒。

  辨析

  上六是比拟手法。大意是说,不是光明灿烂的白昼,就是暗淡无光的黑夜。国家政权也是这样,起初如日中天,清正廉明,之后日沉地下,腐败堕落。

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