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《周易》第三十四卦,雷天大壮

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【绪言】

  《周易》第三十四卦《雷天大壮》。六爻纳甲法属于坤宫第五卦,五行属土。

  上一卦《天山遯》,隐居到一定程度,必然重出江湖,大显身手,因此,此卦为《雷天大壮》。

  《大壮》,十二消息卦之一,二十四节代表惊蛰,是魄力的象征。《雷天大壮》与《天山遯》互为综卦,有进则有出,有隐则有显。

  《大壮》卦,强盛。寓意壮阔,强壮,强大,勇猛,魄力。

  卦象叙述方式:只有脚拇指强壮,不利于行动;保持纯正吉利;正人君子就像公羊被关进了羊圈,无法施展;好钢使在刀刃上;羊在路上丢失了;正人君子就像围栏里的羊,不想后退也无法通过,只有在逆境中保持纯正,才会吉利。

  大张声势,奋勇前进,因此,第三十五卦为《火地晋》。

雷天大壮.jpg

  

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗大壮,利贞。

  译文

  卦辞:大壮卦,利于思想守正。

  〖彖曰〗大壮,大者壮也,刚以动①,故壮。大壮利贞,大者正也②。正大③,而天地之情④可见矣!

  译文

  彖曰:大壮,大是壮观的意思,浩浩长空运行起来,所以说壮观。大壮卦利于守正,因为不只是壮观,同时也合乎法度。义正而又壮观,由此可以发现天地之本性。

  ①刚以动:强大的力量运行起来。②大者正也:壮观而又合乎法度。③正大:符合法度而又强大。④情:本性。

  辨析

  1.刚以动:强大的力量运行起来。下卦乾为刚正,上卦震为发动,所以说“刚以动”。刚,指乾卦,代表天,刚是强大的意思。以,推动,促成。

  2.大者正也:壮观而又合乎法度。者,连词,表示同时存在的意思。正,合乎法度,端正。《易·乾卦》:“大哉乾乎,刚健中正。”

  〖象曰〗雷在天上,大壮。君子以非礼勿履①。

  译文

  象曰:上卦为震为雷,下卦为乾为天,雷在天上轰鸣,称作大壮卦。君子由此得到启发,不合礼法的事情不会去做。

  ①非礼勿履:不符合礼法的事情不会去做。非礼,不合礼仪。《论语·颜渊》亦有:“非礼勿视,非礼勿听,非礼勿言,非礼勿动。”履,施行。

雷天大壮卦2.jpg

  

【爻辞】

  〖初九〗壮于趾①,征凶。有孚②。

  〖象曰〗壮于趾,其孚①也。

  译文

  初九:强大之初,就是脚拇指强壮一样,此时出征凶险。应该保持诚实守正的态度。

  象曰:只是脚指强壮,那是说他只能诚实守正,不可妄动。

  ①壮于趾:脚拇指强壮。比喻刚刚强盛。②有孚:保持真诚的态度。有,保持,占有。孚,真诚的态度。

  〖九二〗贞吉。

  〖象曰〗九二贞吉,以中也。

  译文

  九二:保持纯正,吉利。

  象曰:九二爻能够保持纯正,原因是他的位置恰当。

  辨析

  九二爻,阳居阴位,不正。但能与六五爻遥相呼应,所以说:“贞吉,以中也。”

  〖九三〗小人用壮①,君子用罔②。贞厉③。羝羊触藩④,羸其角⑤。

  〖象曰〗小人用壮,君子罔也。

  译文

  九三:小人壮大起来,君子就没有用武之地。如果思想依然固执守正,那就会有危险。就像公羊顶撞围栏,把羊角困住一样,始终无法脱身。

  象曰:小人壮大之后,必然会给正义之人带来灾祸。

  ①小人用壮:小人强盛起来。用,得到。②君子用罔:君子没有用武之地。罔,没有,枉然。③贞厉:固执守正则凶险。贞,固执守正。④羝羊触藩:公羊顶撞围栏。羝,读dī,公羊。藩,读fán,篱笆,指羊圈围栏。⑤羸其角:困住了羊角。羸,读léi,困住。

  辨析

  1.罔:没有。罔,古义为“网”,指网罗罪名,诬陷好人。

  2.羝羊:公羊。羝,读 dī。古代,羊是吉祥的象征,公羊喻示正直不阿的君子。

  3.触藩:冲撞围栏。比喻不向邪恶低头。

  4.羸其角:困住了羊角。比喻身陷囹圄,失去自由。

  〖九四〗贞吉,悔亡。藩决不羸①。壮于大舆②之辐③。

  〖象曰〗藩决不羸,尚往也④。

  译文

  九四:纯正吉利,悔恨消失。就像公羊摆脱困境,把围栏撞开了一个口子一样。更像是大车的辐条,坚实牢靠。

  象曰:撞开围栏,摆脱困境,就能大展身手了。

  ①藩决不羸:围栏开个口子,摆脱了困境。决,开口,决口。②大舆:大车。比喻国家大事。③辐:车条。④尚往也:大有作为。尚,向往,希望。

  辨析

  壮于大舆之辐:大车的辐条坚实牢靠。比喻好钢使在刀刃上。

  〖六五〗丧羊于易①。无悔。

  〖象曰〗丧羊于易,位不当②也。

  译文

  六五:羊在路上丢失,不必后悔。

  象曰:羊在路上丢失,那是去了不当的地方。

  ①丧羊于易:羊在路上丢失。易,道路,疆土。《荀子·富国》:“观国之治乱臧否,至于疆易而端已见矣。”又,《汉书·礼乐志》:“吾易久远。”②位不当:所处方位不适宜。这里指羊跑到了偏僻的地方。

    辨析

    1.位不当也:六五爻阴位阳居,不正,所以孔子说“位不当也”。

    2.无悔:虽然六五爻不正,但与九二爻相呼应,所以说“无悔”。

  〖上六〗羝羊触藩,不能退①,不能遂②,无攸利。艰则吉。

  〖象曰〗不能退,不能遂,不祥也。艰则吉,咎③不长也。

  译文

  上六:公羊顶撞围栏,不想后退,但也无法通过,这没有任何好处。只有在逆境中坚持下去,才会吉利。

  象曰:不想后退,也无法通过,那是处境不利。在危难中坚持下去才会吉利,是说这种逆境不会持续太久。

  ①不能退:身负使命而不能退却。②遂:通过,成功,达到自己满意。③咎:诬陷的罪名。

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