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《周易》第三十三卦,天山遯

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【绪言】

  六十四卦第三十三卦《天山遯》,六爻纳甲法属于乾宫第三卦,五行属金。

  上一卦《雷风恒》,世界万物都在运动之中,当能量不能守恒时,相对一方必然避而不见,因此,此卦为《天山遯》。

  《天山遯》,十二消息卦之一,二十四节代表小暑,人事象征小人。《天山遯》与《雷天大壮》互为综卦。

  《遯》卦,所谓“遯”,月+豕+辶,本义是猪逃走,引申为躲起来,音义同“遁”。寓意改变、躲避、回避、逃避、逃跑、推卸、隐退、隐居、出家、退出。

  卦象叙述方式:没有及时隐退;待遇优厚,留住人才;事务缠身,必然隐退;功成身退;适时隐退;无忧无虑的隐退。

  人本动,不动是刻意。隐居到一定程度,必然重出江湖,摩拳擦掌,因此,第三十四卦为《雷天大壮》。

  

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗遯,亨。小①利贞。

  译文

  卦辞:遁卦,亨通。普通人适宜持续下去。

  ①小:小人,普通人,市井小贩。

  辨析

  小利贞:普通人适宜持续下去。为什么小人亨通?《遁》卦是十二辟卦之一,农历代表六月,二十四节代表小暑。此时,阴气逐渐增强,阳气逐渐消减。喻义小人得势,耀武扬威。君子失势,虎落平阳。作为君子,睿智的做法就是隐遁起来,韬光养晦。有关十二辟卦,详细点此查看

  〖彖曰〗遯亨,遯而亨也。刚当位而应①,与②时行③也。小利贞,浸④而长⑤也。遯之时义大矣哉!

  译文

  彖曰:遁卦亨通,是说隐居求志,才能亨通。天地万物有条不紊,才能与四时的运行法则相吻合。普通人适宜持续下去,那是因为普通人的能量逐渐增强。遁卦的现实意义太大了。

  ①刚当位而应:正常运行,相互呼应。②与:合乎。③时行:四时运行。④浸:逐渐。⑤长:进步,增强。

  辨析

  1.刚当位而应:二爻阴位阴爻,五爻阳位阳爻,二与五阴阳相应。喻义日月星辰按时就班,万事万物有序运行。

  2.与时行也:合乎四时的运行规律。

  3.浸而长也:意思是天地大气候运行至此,阳气消退,阴气增长。并非小人的个人努力所使。参看十二辟卦。

       4.《遁》卦告诉我们:天对人是公平的,无论是达官贵人,还是市井小贩,他们都有顺利发达的时候。

  〖象曰〗天下有山,遯。君子以远①小人,不恶而严②。

  译文

  象曰:上卦为乾为天,下卦为艮为山,天下有山,隐居山林,称作遁卦。君子由此得到启发,远离小人,不怒自威。

  ①远:疏远。②不恶而严:不怒自威。恶,凶狠,恼怒。

  

天山遯.jpg

【爻辞】

  〖初六〗遯尾①,厉,勿用有攸往。

  〖象曰〗遯尾之厉,不往何灾也?

  译文

  初六:没有果断隐退,这很危险,不要有任何谋求和行动。

  象曰:没有果断隐退很危险,如果不参与任何事务又会有什么灾难呢?

  ①遯尾:拖拖拉拉,没有及时隐退。尾,末尾,比喻办事迟缓,犹豫不决。

  〖六二〗执之①,用黄牛之革②,莫之胜说③。

  〖象曰〗执用黄牛,固志也④。

  译文

  六二:留住人才,就像用牛皮绳子栓住一样,不让他们离开。

  象曰:用黄牛皮子栓住人才,那是为了让他们确立牢固的意志。

  ①执之:栓住他们。②用黄牛之革:使用牛皮绳子。③莫之胜说:不让他们挣脱。说,同“脱”。④固志也:坚定意志。

  辨析

  1.执之:留住人才。执,拉,绑,控制的意思。之,他们,指人才。六二爻阴位阴爻得正,与五爻相应,能以辅佐九五爻,所以说是“人才”。

  2.用黄牛之革:使用牛皮绳子(栓住)。在古代,牛是贵重财物,用黄牛皮子栓住人才,比喻重视人才,用优厚的待遇留住人才。

  3.固志也:意思是让他们安心留下来,不要总想着离开。

    4.莫之胜说:不让离开。也可以解释为“让他们没有任何话可说”。要地位有地位,要待遇有待遇,你还有什么理由再说离开呢?

    5.此爻没有吉凶断语,说明留下来是凶是吉,暂时还无法定论。

  〖九三〗系遯①,有疾厉②,畜臣妾③,吉。

  〖象曰〗系遯之厉,有疾惫也。畜臣妾吉,不可大事也。

  译文

  九三:事务缠身而隐退,那是患上了严重的疾病。此时要收养男仆女奴,安心养病,吉利。

  象曰:因事而退所带来的危险,那是因为疾病所导致的体力不支。收养男仆女奴虽然吉利,但那也做不成什么大事。

  ①系遯:因为某事牵扯而选择隐退。系,关联,牵扯。②疾厉:疾病严重。厉,危险,严重。③臣妾:男女奴仆。臣为男仆,妾为女奴。

  辨析

  1.六二爻,用高级别的待遇留住人才。到了九三爻,体弱多病,或受到其它的牵扯,不再过问政治,退居家中,收养一些仆人,过着悠闲的日子。所以孔子才说“不可大事也”。

  2.所谓“系遯”,就是因为牵扯一些事务,不得不退居二线的意思。有人解释为“由于被牵累而难以遁去”,这不符合爻辞含义。既然重病缠身,还如何继续工作?不退也得退。

  〖九四〗好遯①,君子吉②,小人否③。

  〖象曰〗君子好遯,小人否也。

  译文

  九四:功成身退,开明的人能做到,一般人都不会这样做。

  象曰:开明的人明白功成身退的道理,一般人却想不通,也行不通。

  ①好遯:功成身退。好,成功。②吉:圆满。③否:不。

  辨析

  历史上,功成名就及时隐退的人有很多,比如,春秋孙武辅佐吴王阖闾打败楚国后隐退;春秋范蠡辅佐越王勾践灭吴后隐退;战国孙膑辅佐齐威王败魏国杀庞涓后隐退;西汉张良辅佐刘邦建立汉朝后隐退;明朝姚广孝辅佐朱棣夺取南京建立明朝后隐退。

  历史上,功成名就没有及时隐退的人则更多,比如,春秋伍子胥辅佐吴王阖闾,被赐死;战国白起辅佐秦昭王统一六国,被赐死;西汉韩信帮助刘邦建立汉朝,被处死;明朝张居正辅佐万历皇帝改革,被抄家;清朝鳌拜帮助皇太极建立清朝,死于狱中;清末袁世凯推翻清朝,做了83天皇帝,迫于压力而死。

  能够做到功遂身退的人是少数,多数都不明白这个道理。看来,天下萝卜多,人参少。殊不知,该退则退,功高盖主者必死!

  〖九五〗嘉遯①,贞②,吉。

  〖象曰〗嘉遯贞吉,以正志③也。

  译文

  九五:选择合适的时候隐退,这是心地纯正的做法,吉利。

  象曰:适时退出,行为恰当,因为这种思想作风是正确的。

  ①嘉遯:完美地隐退。即适时退出。嘉,完美。②贞:心地真诚,行为端正。③正志:正确的想法。

  辨析

  所谓“嘉遁”,就是寻找合适时机,退出政坛的意思。比如,新政权成立伊始,人才紧缺。此时此刻,如若坚持隐退,当权者必然内心不悦。如果长期工作下去,稍有不慎,将遗恨一生。所以说,隐退不是一件容易的事。要在合适的时候,合适的场合,合适的理由,君臣皆大欢喜,自然而退,这就是“嘉遁”。

  〖上九〗肥遯①,无不利。

  〖象曰〗肥遯,无不利,无所疑②也。

  译文

  上九:无忧无虑地隐居起来,没有任何不利。

  象曰:无忧无虑地隐居起来,没有任何不利,那是因为没有任何后顾之忧。

  ①肥遁:隐居乡下,过着富足的生活。②疑:忧虑,担心。

  辨析

  所谓“肥遁”,意思是无忧无虑地隐居起来。肥,本义富足。生活富足,自然就自由自在,悠然从容。

  能做到“肥遁”是有条件的。首先,普通的农民,需要耕作,养家糊口,他们隐居起来就要挨饿。生活富足,衣食无忧,才能隐居乡野,自由自在。但是,要厘清“富足”的原因:如果勤劳而富,自然无灾。比如,春秋时期有个范蠡,家资万贯,于是远离尘俗,过着与世无争的日子,自由自在。这就是“肥遁”。如果贪污受贿而富,终不安心。

  比如,些干部执政期间,贪污受贿。他们认为退休之后,就像飞机平安着陆一样,拿着赃款过着吃喝不尽的奢侈生活,这也是“肥遁”。然而,这种“肥遁”难保没有灾祸。如今,反腐力度增大,能够向前倒查20年,即使“遁”起来,也不可明目张胆地“肥”。如此,要钱何用?

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