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《周易》第三十二卦,雷风恒

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【绪言】

  六十四卦第三十二卦《雷风恒》,六爻纳甲法属于震宫第四卦,五行属木。

  上一卦《泽山咸》,两情相悦,终成眷属。人生处事也要这样,坚持不懈,持之以恒,因此,此卦为《雷风恒》。

  《泽山咸》与《雷风恒》互为综卦。感情相通,情投意合,就能持之以恒。

  《恒》卦,永恒。寓意思想、保持、长久、永久、恒心、死板、固执、执迷。

  卦象叙述方式:思想固执;悔恨消散;丧失品德,必受耻辱;大脑死板,难有收获;男女各行其道;犹豫不决。

  《恒》卦告诉我们:为人处事,要有恒心,要有必胜的信念,但也不可做事死板,不知变通,一条路上走到黑。

  万事万物都在运动之中,不可能恒久不变,因此,第三十三卦为《天山遁》。《天山遁》与《雷天大壮》互为综卦。

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗恒,亨,无咎。利贞,利有攸往。

  译文

  卦辞:恒卦,亨通,没有不利。适宜坚持纯正的思想,适宜有所谋划和行动。

  〖彖曰〗恒,久也。刚上而柔下①,雷风相与。巽而动②,刚柔皆应③,恒。恒亨无咎,利贞,久於其道④也,天地之道,恒久而不已⑤也。利有攸往,终则有始⑥也。日月得天,而能久照。四时变化,而能久成。圣人久於其道,而天下化成。观其所恒,而天地万物之情可见矣!

  译文

  彖曰:所谓恒,是永恒的意思。阳气在上,阴气在下,阴阳相遇。热空气向上,冷空气向下,上下交会,风力形成,称作恒卦。恒卦通顺无灾,利于纯正,意思是说致力于正义事业,要坚持不懈,就像天地运行一样,永恒不止。利于行动,意思是说做事要持之以恒。日月附在天上,所以才能永远普照大地。四季自然变化,所以才能永远成就万物。圣人长期致力于正义事业,所以才能感化天下,从而成就天下。观察恒卦,就能发现天地万物的本质。

  ①刚上而柔下:阳动在上,阴静在下。②巽而动:震动打破了平静,风力形成。上卦为震为动,下卦为巽为静为风。③刚柔皆应:上下交会。④久於其道:在某项事业上坚持不懈。道,某项工作。⑤恒久而不已:永久不停止。已,停止。⑥终则有始:到了终点就重新开始。

  辨析

  1.刚上而柔下:上卦为震为刚为阳为热,下卦为巽为柔为冷。

  2.巽而动:巽卦遇到震卦,震动打破了平静,旷野生风。动,双重含义,既指震卦,又指震动。

  3.刚柔皆应:初与四相应、二与五相应、三与六相应。代指冷热相交。应,交应,交合。

  热空气向上,冷空气向下。它们在空中碰撞,风力形成。这里虽然点出了风的形成原因,但重点还是阐释“空气”。空气无声无息,永久存在,最能体现的就是永恒。

  4.久於其道:长期致力于某项事业。道,指思想和事业。

  天有天道,地有地道,人有人道,易有易道,仙有仙道,鬼有鬼道,儒有儒道,文化有文道,政治有政道,礼仪有礼道,医术有医道,艺术有艺道,教授有师道,妇女有妇道,小偷有贼道,骗子有骗道……成千上万的“道”,各行各业都有它的“道”,所以,“道”是“行业的意思。但在这里,“道”是正义的思想和事业。

  5.终则有始:到了终点就重新开始,是持续不断的意思。

  〖象曰〗雷风,恒。君子以立不易方①。

  译文

  象曰:上卦为震为雷,下卦为巽为风,冷热气流冲击,风力形成,称作恒卦。君子由此得到启发,不会轻易改变自己建功立业的方针。

  ①立不易方:不会轻易改变建功立业的方针。立,立业,立命。方,方针,策略。

  辨析

  立不易方:即“立方不易”,就是建功立业的方针不会改变。立方,树立德业,建功立业。有人译为“确立不变的道理”。这恰恰违背了《易经》的宗旨。《易经》讲的就是“变”,世间万事万物都在变化之中,根本没有什么“不变之理”。

雷风恒.jpg

【爻辞】

  〖初六〗浚恒①,贞凶②。无攸利。

  〖象曰〗浚恒之凶,始求深也③。

  译文

  初六:陷入沉迷的状态,如果持续下去必有凶险。这没有任何好处。

  象曰:之所以沉迷不利,那是因为一开始就谋求的太深了。

  ①浚恒:沉迷。读jùn,深挖河道,形容程度深。恒,死板。②贞凶:持续下去凶险。③始求深也:一开始,要求的条件就太深了。

  辨析

  始求深:也就是一开始的期望值太高了。比如父母期望儿子将来考上北大清华,十几年后,儿子只读了大专。因此,父母一时难以接受。所以说“无攸利”。

  〖九二〗悔亡。

  〖象曰〗九二悔亡,能久中也。

  译文

  九二:曾经的悔恨消散了。

  象曰:九二爻的悔恨能够消散,原因是能够长久保持一个平和的心态。

    辨析

    如果总能保持一个平和的心态,即使孩子没有考上北大清华,也没有什么。人生的路有千万条,只要你去努力,就会有收获。所以说“悔亡”。

  〖九三〗不恒其德,或承之羞。贞吝①。

  〖象曰〗不恒其德,无所容②也。

  译文

  九三:不守德性,那就有可能承受由此带来的羞辱。如果持续下去,那一定会丢人现眼。

  象曰:不守德性,那是不可原谅的。

  ①吝:令人耻笑,没有面子。②容:原谅,包容。

  〖九四〗田无禽①。

  〖象曰〗久非其位②,安得禽也?

  译文

  九四:在田野中没有捕获猎物。

  象曰:时过境迁,禽兽不去那个地方了,怎么能捕获猎物?

  ①田无禽:在田野中没有捕到猎物。田,田野,指在田野打猎。禽,飞禽走兽。②久非其位:时间长久环境变化,野兽不再去那个位置了。非,变化。位,位置,指野兽经常出没的地方。

  辨析

  1.久非其位:字面意思是“长时间不在自己的位置上”,但这又能说明什么呢?

  山中狩猎,长时间停留在某个位置上,那是守株待兔。如果兔子不来,或根本没有兔子,安得禽也?

  山中狩猎,经常在某一个地方捕杀猎物,禽兽就不会再去那个地方了。如果循规蹈矩,仍去原来的地方,安得禽也?

  日积月累,人类活动范围不断扩大,动物为了躲避人类的捕杀,它们只能往地广人稀的旷野迁移。如果仍旧在老地方狩猎,怎能捕到猎物?结合实际,“久非其位”只有一种解释,那就是“时间长就变化了,禽兽不去那个地方了”。

  2.爻辞告诉我们,做事有恒心不错,但也不能泥古不化,不知变通。

  〖六五〗恒其德贞①,妇人吉,夫子②凶。

  〖象曰〗妇人贞吉,从一而终也。夫子制义③,从妇凶也。

  译文

  六五:保持纯贞不二的美德,妇人应该这样做,男人则不利。

  象曰:妇人纯正吉祥,那是因为她能够从一而终。男人要决断大事,只听妇人之言就不行。

  ①德贞:忠贞不二的美德。②夫子:男子,丈夫。③制义:裁决事宜。制,裁决。义,感觉合理的事。

  辨析

  所谓“制义”,一个家庭的发展,需要一个有主见的男人做出决断。哪些事能做,那些朋友能交,将来如何发展,大事如何做,这都需要一个有主见的男人来决断。义,根据自身情况,感觉能做的事。

  〖上六〗振恒①,凶。

  〖象曰〗振恒在上,大②无功也。

  译文

  上六:思想摇摆不定,凶险。

  象曰:自身处在重要的位置上,如果思想摇摆不定,那就不会成就大业。

  ①振恒:思想摇摆不定。振,抖动,摇动。②大:重要的。

  辨析

  所谓“振恒”,指做事没有恒心,思想摇摆不定。振,摇摆。此爻处于全卦最上方,也有终止的意思。终止恒心,即没有恒心,意思是犹豫不决,失去信心的意思。

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