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《周易》第三十一卦,泽山咸

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【绪言】

  六十四卦第三十一卦《泽山咸》,是《易经》六十四卦下篇第一卦。六爻纳甲法属于兑宫第四卦,五行属金。

  《序卦传·下篇》说:“有天地,然后有万物。有万物,然后有男女。有男女,然后有夫妇。有夫妇,然后有父子。有父子,然后有君臣。有君臣,然后有上下。有上下,然后礼仪有所错。”所谓错,是不同规定的意思。

  六十四卦上篇以《坎》和《离》终止。坎为水为中男,离为火为中女,一水一火,一男一女,大自然水火既济,万物资生。男女相合,感情萌生。男女相济,生命繁衍。因此,此卦为《泽山咸》。

  《咸》卦,心灵相通的意思。寓意感应、感通、感化、心灵、思想、预想、思念、爱情。

  卦象叙述方式:感应到脚趾;感应到小腿;感应到大腿;感应到心灵;感应到后背;感应到面颊。

  男女相亲相爱,结为夫妻,风雨兼程,需要持之以恒,因此,第三十二卦为《雷风恒》。《雷风恒》与《泽山咸》互为综卦。

  

泽天咸.jpg

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗咸,亨,利贞①。娶女吉。

  译文

  卦辞:咸卦,亨通,爱情要坚贞不渝。迎娶少女,结婚吉祥。

  ①利贞:需要坚贞不渝。

  〖彖曰〗咸,感也。柔上而刚下,二气①感应以相与②。止而说③,男下女④,是以亨利贞,取女吉也。天地感而万物化生。圣人感人心而天下和平。观其所感,而天地万物之情⑤可见矣!

  译文

  彖曰:所谓咸,是感应的意思。上卦柔顺为阴,下卦刚正为阳,阴阳感应,相互吸引。保持喜悦的心情,把婚书送给女方,所以才说:“亨通,爱情要坚贞不渝,娶女吉祥。”天地阴阳感应,万物资生。官民心灵相通,天下和平。观察《咸》卦之感,就可以发现天地万物的本性。

  ①二气:阴阳二炁。指艮卦和兑卦。②相与:结合,相交,吸引。③止而说:保持喜悦。④男下女:少男追求少女。下,追求,投送。⑤情:本性。

  辨析

  1.止而说:下卦为艮为止,上卦为兑为悦。止,停止,阻止,保留某种状态。说,通“悦”,喜悦。

  所谓“止”,详细点此查看。

  2.男下女:有两层意思,第一,少男追求少女。第二,古代男方求婚,送给女方的婚书,常说“下聘书”。

  〖象曰〗“山上有泽,咸。君子以虚受人①。”

  译文

  象曰:下卦为艮为山,上卦为兑为泽,水在山顶,渗入山体,称作咸卦。君子由此得到启发,像山体容纳泽水一样,虚心接受别人的意见。

  ①以虚受人:虚心地容纳别人。受,容纳,接受。

 

泽山咸卦.jpg

 

【爻辞】

  〖初六〗咸其拇①。

  〖象曰〗咸其拇,志在外也。

  译文

  初六:感应到脚拇指。

  象曰:感应到脚拇指,那是志向在外,打算有所行动。

  ①拇:脚拇指。全卦最下爻,喻义脚拇指。有所想法,脚拇指点地,率先行动。

  〖六二〗咸其腓①,凶。居②吉。

  〖象曰〗虽凶,居吉。顺不害也。

  译文

  六二:感应到小腿,凶险。在家休息,吉利。

  象曰:虽然凶险,但停下来吉利。抱着顺应的态度,就没什么危害。

  ①腓:读féi。胫骨后的肉,即小腿肚。②居:休息、停止。《淮南子·人间训》:“居数月。”

  〖九三〗咸其股①,执其随往②,吝。

  〖象曰〗咸其股,亦不处③也。志在随人,所执下④也。

  译文

  九三:感应到大腿,依照别人的意志,跟着别人做事,人云亦云,必然留下悔恨。

  象曰:感应到大腿,也不能与一些不合适的人相处。心中打算追随别人,那就降低了自己的身份。

  ①股:胯至膝盖的部分,即大腿。②执其随往:依照别人的意志,跟着前往。执,依照。《墨子·经上》:“执所言而意得见。”③不处:不能交往。处,相处,交往。④执下:追求低下。执,操持,从事。下,低层,下等。

  〖九四〗贞吉①,悔亡②。憧憧往来③,朋从尔思④。

  〖象曰〗贞吉悔亡,未感害也⑤。憧憧往来,未光大也⑥。

  译文

  九四:心善志坚吉祥,悔恨就会消失。频繁的交往和沟通,朋友就会与你心灵相通。

  象曰:纯正吉祥,悔恨消失,那是因为自己没想过伤害别人。频繁的交往和沟通,那是因为自己还没有壮大起来。

  ①贞吉:心地纯正吉利。②悔亡:不会再犯错误;悔恨消失。③憧憧往来:不间断的交往。憧,读chōng。《康熙字典》读tóng。忄+童,童心,执着。指频繁。④朋从尔思:朋友顺从你的想法。⑤未感害也:没想伤害别人。感,想。⑥未光大也:没有得到充分的发展。

  辨析

  1.所谓“贞吉”,九四爻已经上升到身体的上部,指心灵。

  2.所谓“悔亡”,寓意以往曾有悔恨,但现在已经消失了。

  3.憧憧往来:很多人翻译为:“与人交往,心思不定。”如果自己心思不定,拿不定主意,那朋友就没办法顺从你的想法。联系上下文,“憧”是心地执着的意思。“憧憧”,增强语气,指心地执着,频繁出现的意思。

  就是因为自己“未光大”,所以才锲而不舍,频繁地与人交往和沟通。

  〖九五〗咸其脢①,无悔。

  〖象曰〗咸其脢,志末②也。

  译文

  九五:感应到脊背,没有悔恨。

  象曰:感应到脊背,意思是矢志不渝,努力到最后。

  ①脢:读méi,脊背。也有说,心之上,口之下。②末:最后,遥远。

  〖上六〗咸其辅①颊②舌。

  〖象曰〗咸其辅颊舌,滕③口说④也。

  译文

  上六:感应到面部。

  象曰:感应到面部,是指开口讲话,使人心服口服。

  ①辅:上下颌。②颊:面颊。③滕:通“腾”,跃动,指张口。④说:通“悦”,喜悦,喻义赞成。

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