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《周易》第三十卦,离为火

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【绪言】

  六十四卦第三十卦《离为火》,是《易经》六十四卦上篇最后一卦。六爻纳甲法属于离宫第一卦,五行属火。

  第二十九卦是《坎为水》,历经险象,诚惶诚恐,转而只能寄人篱下,因此,此卦为《离为火》。也可以解释为:《坎》卦历经艰险,百炼成钢,人生开启光辉的一页,因此,此卦为《离为火》。

  《坎为水》与《离为火》互为错卦。寓意大自然水火既济之象,成与败相辅相成,互为前提,每个人的奋斗过程都是两者交织的过程,没有失败,就无所谓成功。

  《离》卦,太阳普照。寓意光明、光辉、光彩、上升、依附、依靠、遵照。

  卦象叙述方式:手脚忙乱,毕恭毕敬;金色阳光,大吉大利;太阳偏西,人到老年;灰飞烟灭,无处容身;痛哭流涕,攀附权贵;率兵出征,剿灭叛逆。

  六十四卦上篇,共30卦。《乾》《坤》开篇,至《坎》《离》结束,主要讲述宇宙大自然规则。

  有天地,方有生息。坎为男,离为女,男女结合,繁育后代,人类生生不息,这就是天地形成之功。

  六十四卦下篇,共34卦。《咸》卦开篇,首先阐述男女婚嫁,进而叙述人间烟火。

 

离为火.jpg

 

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗离,利贞①,亨。畜②牝牛③,吉。

  译文

  卦辞:离卦,日月正常运行,亨通。就像饲养一头母牛会给家庭衍生财富一样,吉祥。

  ①利贞:指日升月落,地球正常运转。②畜:读xù,动词,饲养。③牝牛:母牛。牝,读pìn,雌性。

  辨析

  为什么要用“母牛”作比喻?《离》之卦象,阴爻居中,相当于母牛;阳包阴,相当于圈养。为什么不用母猪作比喻?耕牛是古代最重要的劳动工具。另外,牛多黄色,黄色是《离》卦的颜色。所以,六二爻辞说:“黄离,元吉。”

  〖彖曰〗离,丽①也。日月丽乎天,百谷草木丽乎土,重明②以丽乎正③,乃化成天下。柔④丽乎中正⑤,故亨,是以畜牝牛吉也。

  译文

  彖曰:所谓离,是依附的意思。日月依附在天空,草木依附在大地,日月在天上交替散发光芒,所以天下万物才能正常生长。万物柔弱,凭借自然法则,生长生息,所以亨通,因此,就像饲养一头母牛,会给家庭衍生财富一样吉利。

  ①丽:附着、依附、遵从。②重明:日月交替,散发光芒。③以丽乎正:依附在天上正常运行。④柔:柔弱。指天下万物。⑤丽乎中正:凭借自然法则(生长)。丽,依靠,遵从、凭借。中正,正道,天地的运行规则。

  辨析

  1.所谓“重明”,有人翻译为“重复照明”,这不正确。日月都在发光,白天太阳照射为离,夜晚月亮映射阳光也为离。万物生长靠太阳。然而,月亮的圆缺,对植物的生长也起着不可或缺的作用。详细查阅相关知识。

  其次,《离》卦六二阴位阴爻,居中得正,象征太阳;六五阳位阴爻,虽不正但居中,象征月亮。太阳和月亮,一阴一阳,交替运行,相辅相成,所以叫“重明”。

  2.所谓“柔”,指天下万物。万物与天地相比,永远都是弱者,永远都要依靠天地的正常运转而生长生息。所以,统论宇宙的时候,“柔”是人类和万物的代称。

  〖象曰〗明两作离①。大人以继明②照于四方。

  译文

  象曰:上卦为离为光明,下卦为离也为光明,日升月没,月出日落,照明大地,称作离卦。圣贤由此得到启发,要像日月交替照明一样,照亮天下。

  ①明两作离:两个光明称作离卦。明两,两个光源,指日月。②继明:继续照明。继,接替持续。

  

【爻辞】

  〖初九〗履错然①,敬之,无咎。

  〖象曰〗履错之敬,以辟咎②也。

  译文

  初九:步子慌乱,一副毕恭毕敬的样子,没人会怪罪。

  象曰:步子慌乱,毕恭毕敬,那是为了避免自己犯错。

  ①错然:因拘谨而手脚不自然。②辟咎:避免错误。辟,排除,避免。

  辨析

  生活中,“农民”求“省长”办事,多数紧张拘谨,手脚会出现不自然。所以说“履错然。”

  〖六二〗黄①离②,元吉。

  〖象曰〗黄离元吉,得③中道④也。

  译文

  六二:太阳散发着金色的光芒,大吉。

  象曰:太阳散发着金色的光芒,大吉,那是因为太阳能够正常运行,没有偏离黄道。

  ①黄:大地之色,尊贵之象。②离,光彩。③得:能够。④中道:正道,就是自然规则。指太阳正常运行。

  〖九三〗日昃①之离,不鼓缶②而歌,则大耋之嗟③,凶。

  〖象曰〗日昃之离,何可久也④?

  译文

  九三:太阳偏西,像是八十多岁的老人,他们没有力气再去敲击乐器,只能哼哼咳咳地叹息,凶。

  象曰:太阳偏西,怎么能长久呢?

  ①昃:读zè,太阳偏西。②鼓缶:敲击瓦缶。鼓,敲击。缶,读fǒu,古代乐器。③大耋之嗟:八十岁老人的叹息声。耋,读dié,人老八十。嗟,读jiē,叹息。④何可久也:怎么能长久呢?指马上天黑。

  辨析

  九三爻是下卦最上爻,预示太阳偏西,马上就要进入夜晚。籍此判断,《离为火》下卦代表太阳,上卦寓意月亮。

  〖九四〗突如①,其来②如,焚③如,死④如,弃⑤如。

  〖象曰〗突如其来如,无所容也⑥。

  译文

  九四:突然,夜幕降临了,似乎太阳要燃烧尽了,没了光芒,远离而去。

  象曰:突然,夜幕降临了,漆黑一片,看不见任何东西。

  ①突如:突然。如,指某种状态。②其来:夜幕降临了。其,代指夜幕。③焚:焚烧殆尽,这里指太阳的余晖。④死:光芒熄灭。杜甫《宿凿石浦》:“缺月殊未生,青灯死分翳。”⑤弃:离开了。《战国策·秦策》:“子弃寡人。”⑥无所容也:没有地方容身。比喻漆黑一片,不能看见。

  辨析

  1.卦辞是比拟手法,并不是真的说一个人或物终结了,而是在描述太阳落山的情形。

  2.九三爻是太阳偏西,九四爻太阳已经落入地平线,天黑了。古人认为“阳光燃烧尽了,没有了,远离了”。

  3.所谓“其来如”,夜幕降临了。其,代词,指夜幕。为什么指“夜幕”呢?这是根据卦爻确定的。九三爻太阳偏西,此爻一定是天黑了,所以,“其”代指“夜幕”。若非如此,“其”又是代表什么呢?

  4.“焚如,死如,弃如”,听起来非常吓人,但周文王并没有判定为“凶”,所以,日升日落是正常现象。

  5.所谓“无所容也”,乍一听,是“没有容身的地方”,大凶。细细分析,可以看出,周文王把太阳落山比作一个人或物的终结,孔子也遵循这种比拟手法,所以说“无所容也”。意思是天黑,无法正常行走,感觉无处容身。

  6.所谓“焚”,物之燃烧,必成粉末,在逻辑上通“粉”。既然还有粉末,所以,这里指太阳的余晖。

  7.所谓“如”,这里出现了五个“如”,都表示状态。突如,不知不觉的状态;其来如,夜幕降临的状态;焚如,太阳落山,余光发红,像是燃烧的状态;死如,阳光熄灭,天色渐黑的状态;弃如,太阳远去,越来越黑的状态。

离为火卦.jpg

  〖六五〗:出涕沱若①,戚嗟②若,吉。

  〖象曰〗六五之吉,离王公③也。

  译文

  六五:痛哭流涕,一副十分伤心的样子,吉利

  象曰:六五爻之所以吉利,原因是将来能够依靠君王。

  ①出涕沱若:涕泪交零,满脸乱淌。涕,眼泪和鼻涕。沱,江河支流叫沱,延伸义为乱淌。若,样子。②戚嗟:忧伤哀叹。戚,忧伤。③离王公:依附君王。王公,君王,达官贵人。

  辨析

  放声痛哭,为什么还说吉利?孔子解释说:“抱住了王公贵族的大腿。”看来,这种痛哭,是一种谋略,也获得了一定的成效。三国时期,刘备动不动就痛哭流涕,哭而有功,这就是一种谋略。

  〖上九〗王用出征,有嘉①折首②,获匪其丑③。无咎。

  〖象曰〗王用出征,以正邦也。

  译文

  上九:君王率兵出征,对于投诚者给予嘉奖,主要是为了擒获罪大恶极的头领。这样做没错。

  象曰:君王率兵出征,是为了安邦定国。

  ①嘉:嘉奖,表彰。②折首:弯腰低头。表示投诚,投降,服从。③获匪其丑:擒获罪大恶极的首领。获,捉拿,擒获。匪,匪徒。丑,丑恶,恶徒。

  辨析

  1.所谓“获匪其丑”。有人解释为“不是为了抓获他们的随从者”,意思是只抓首领,赦免众人。这样解释,感觉周文王的爻辞很绕,那就应该直接写作“奖励投诚,赦免大众”,何必再写不抓大众呢?

  2.所谓“丑”,繁体“醜”,酉+鬼,从酒从鬼,本义恶徒,丑陋。六爻位于最上方,喻义严重,所以,“丑”为罪大恶极的首领,或说顽固不化的头领。

  “丑”有同类,大众的意思,但那只是“丑”字的延伸义。在这里,需要“丑”的本义。

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