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《周易》第二十九卦,坎为水

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【绪言】

  六十四卦第二十九卦是《坎为水》。六爻纳甲法属于坎宫第一卦,五行属水。

  上一卦是《泽风大过》,过分的举止,过度的压力,必然使人举步维艰,甚至陷入危险之中,因此,此卦为《坎为水》。

  《坎》卦,水深不测,危险之象。寓意深水、水中、沟壑、陷阱、危险、陷落、下降、险阻、强盗、欺凌。

  卦象叙述方式:陷落坑底,大凶;凫于水面,小吉;水流湍急,再陷水底;生活简朴,低调做人;凫于水面,风平浪静;绳捆索绑,囚于牢狱。

  危机之中,险象环生,暂时只能谦卑谨慎,寄人篱下,因此,第三十卦是《离为火》。

坎为水.jpg

 

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗坎,习①坎,有孚②维心③,亨④,行有尚⑤。

  译文

  卦辞:坎卦,在艰险中磨炼自己,就像在深水中游泳一样,大脑时刻要保持清醒,则百炼成钢,见多识广,做事才有希望。

  ①习:重复训练,接受并习惯。②有孚:有信心。指大脑清醒。③维心:心存。维,在于。④亨:顺利。指饱经忧患,见多识广,才会做事顺利。⑤行有尚:做事有希望。尚,希望,目标。

  辨析

  1.深水之中,本是危险,为什么还说“亨”呢?深水只是个比喻,指在艰险中磨炼自己的意志,只有饱经沧桑,才能见识多广,才更会做事,所以说“亨”。

  2.习坎:在水中练习,比喻在危险中锻炼自己。上坎下坎,是深水;习,反复练习。

  3.有孚维心:有信心,指大脑清醒。上下卦的中爻为阳爻,表示内心。

  4.行有尚:做事有希望。之所以“有希望”,而不是“有成就”,主要原因在于坎卦,险象环生,不能保证“一定成功。

  〖彖曰〗习坎,重险①也。水流而不盈②,行险而不失其信③。维心亨,乃以刚中④也。行有尚,往有功⑤也。天险不可升也,地险山川丘陵也。王公⑥设险以守其国,坎之时用⑦大矣哉!

  译文

  彖曰:所谓习坎,就是危险重重的意思。江河东流去,永远也不会汇聚一处而泛滥成灾,所以,历经艰险,永远都不要丧失自己的信念。大脑清醒,做事才会顺利,那是因为心有主见。行动有希望,是说前去努力就可能成功。天高有险,原因是不可攀登。地有险,无非是山川丘陵。君王设置险隘,无非是为了守卫他的国家。所以说,坎卦的现实作用太大了。

  ①重险:危险重重。上坎下坎,坎卦重叠。②水流而不盈:河水终将流去,而不会长久泛滥。盈,满溢。③行险而不失其信:历经险阻,也不要失去信念。信,信心,信念。④刚中:内心坚强,指内心有主见。二爻和五爻分别在上下卦的中间,都是阳爻,代表坚强和主见。⑤功:功绩,成功。⑥王公:君王,或指诸侯。⑦时用:现实作用。时,需要的时候。

  〖象曰〗水洊①至,习坎。君子以常②德行,习教事③。

  译文

  象曰:波浪一曾层一层地涌来,称作习坎。君子由此得到启发,像川流不息的河水一样,不间断地培养自己的德行,认真发展教育事业。

  ①洊:读jiàn,水浪一波一波(如图)。②以常德行:籍此,不间断培养自己的德行。常,长期做某事。③教事:教育事业。

  

水洊至,习坎.jpg

【爻辞】

  〖初六〗习坎,入于坎窞①,凶。

  〖象曰〗习坎入坎,失道凶也。

  译文

  初六:在水中磨炼自己,不慎落入坑底,危险。

  象曰:在水中磨炼自己,却落入深水之中,那是因为没有把握好正确的方向,所以才会遭遇危险。

  ①窞:读dàn,水底深坑,坑底。根据《坎》义,初爻阴爻位于最下部,为水底的坑。根据汉字,穴+臽,臽,陷阱。洞穴底部的坑。

  辨析

  初六爻位于全卦最下方,故为水底;初爻阳位阴居,不正。不正,表示暗。阴爻,表示坑,故为水底的暗坑。

  〖九二〗坎有险,求小得。

  〖象曰〗求小得,未出中也①。

  译文

  九二:水中危险,只能得到一点小收获。

  象曰:得到一点小收获,那是因为没有脱离正道。

  ①未出中也:没有离开正道。中,九二位于下卦中间,阴位阳爻,不正。但毕竟是阳爻,相当于浅水区,不至于落入水底,所以说“小得”。

  辨析

  所谓“求小得”,落入深水之中,首先要探寻水底凸起的地方,才不至于淹没头部,造成生命危险,这就是“小得”,比喻小有收获。求,探求,探寻。

  〖六三〗来之坎坎①,险且枕②,入于坎窞。勿用。

  〖象曰〗来之坎坎,终无功也。

  译文

  六三:两水湍急交汇,险象环生,会被浪涛卷入水底。千万小心,不可行动。

  象曰:两水湍急交汇,始终不会取得任何功绩。

  ①来之坎坎:两水湍急交汇。来,到,指两水交汇。坎坎,大水。②险且枕:而且危险连着危险。枕,连续、连接。

  辨析

  1.所谓“来之坎坎”,下卦本是水,六三爻又紧临上卦,上卦也是水,故曰“坎坎”。两股大水汇集在一起,称作“来之坎坎”。

  2.所谓“险且枕”,还是坎坎的意思,上游的水,枕着下游的水,指两水汇聚。形容危险重重。枕,枕头。用枕头比喻水连着水

  〖六四〗樽酒①簋贰②,用缶③,纳约④自牖⑤。终无咎。

  〖象曰〗樽酒簋贰,刚柔际⑥也。

  译文

  六四:一杯水酒和两盒食物,分别盛在三个瓦罐里,按照约定在窗口用餐。最终也没错。

  象曰:一杯水酒和两盒食物,那是刚柔结合。

  ①樽酒:一杯酒水。樽,读zūn,盛酒器皿。②簋贰:两种食物。簋,读guǐ,盛饭器皿。贰,两种。③缶:读fǒu,瓦器。④纳约:按照约定接过来。纳,享用。约,约定。⑤自牖:在窗口前。牖,读yǒu。⑥际:交会,结合。

  辨析

  1.樽和簋是高档器皿(如图)。不用樽簋,而用简单的瓦罐,说明生活节俭。

  2.用缶:用三个瓦罐盛着。为什么是三个呢?因为前文说“樽酒簋贰”,意思是有一杯酒和两盒饭。酒与饭食要分开。两盒饭,一盒是稀粥,一盒可能是干饭,必然要分开盛。所以是三个瓦罐。

  饭食可以有多样,但酒水只有一样。所以,“樽酒”就是一杯酒。

  3.刚柔际也:六四爻为阴,靠近九五阳爻,具有阴阳相济的意思,所以孔子说“刚柔际也”。

    4.纳约自牖:按照约定在窗前吃饭。没有使用饭桌,就在窗下简单地吃一顿。寓意简朴。

坎卦.jpg

  〖九五〗坎不盈①,祗②既平③。无咎。

  〖象曰〗坎不盈,中未大也④。

  译文

  九五:河水没有泛滥,祈望的就是风平浪静。这没有错。

  象曰:河水没有泛滥,那是河中没有流入更多的水。

  ①坎不盈:河水没有溢出。坎,河水。盈,溢出。②祗:敬畏,愿望。③既平:水流停止,水面平静。既,完成,停止。④中未大也:河道没有大水。

  辨析

  1.祗:敬神,向神许愿。具有祭告河神的意思。

  2.既:止。上卦互艮,艮为山为止。水到山前,必止而绕行。但截至目前,在六十四卦原文中,并没有发现周文王提到过互卦。仅列于此,供大家研究。

    3.中未大也:河中没有流入更多的水。孔子不是企望发大水,而是提醒人们,每年都可能发生水灾。一旦雨水多,河中就不会“坎不盈,祗既平”了。

  〖上六〗系用徽纆①,寘②于丛棘,三岁不得。凶。

  〖象曰〗上六失道,凶三岁也。

  译文

  上六:用绳子捆起来,放在茂密的荆棘之中,三年都不能回家。凶。

  象曰:上六爻迷失了道路,所以才有三年的凶灾。

  ①系用徽纆:用绳子捆起来。系,绑。徽纆,黑色绳索。纆,读mò。②寘:同“置”。置于,放到。带有惩罚的性质。

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