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《周易》第二十八卦,泽风大过

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【绪言】

    六十四卦第二十八卦是《泽风大过》。六爻纳甲法属于震宫第七卦,五行属木。

    上一卦是《山雷颐》,经过食物营养和文化营养,身强体壮,才高八斗,难免自恃才高,因此,此卦为《山雷颐》。

    《山雷颐》与《泽风大过》互为错卦。它们具备必然因果关系:钱壮人胆。有钱有实力,就敢于一搏。成者扬名,败者衰陷。

    《大过》卦,严重超过限度。寓意压力、重负、过分、过度、坚强、错误、劳累、累垮。

    卦象叙述方式:祭拜神灵,吉利;老夫少妻,有益;正梁弯曲,凶险;正梁隆起,吉利;老妻少夫,无益;深水渡河,有险。

    凡事不可过分。否则,必然身居险地,危机四伏,因此,第二十九卦是《坎为水》。

泽风大过.jpg

【卦辞】

    〖卦辞〗大过,栋桡①。利有攸往,亨。

    译文

    卦辞:大过卦,身负重任就像房屋大梁一样,不堪重负而弯曲。适宜前往做事,亨通。

    ①栋桡:房屋正梁不堪重负而弯曲。桡,读ráo,木竹弯曲。比喻身负重任。

    辨析

    大梁弯曲本是凶象,但为什么又说“利有攸往”?大梁支撑着整个屋脊,由于负重太过,故而弯曲。但是,并没有断掉,依然支撑着屋顶。比喻一个人身负重任,虽然劳累过度,但坚韧不屈,仍在努力地工作着,所以才说:“利有攸往,亨。”

    〖彖曰〗大过,大者过也。栋桡,本末①弱也。刚过而中②,巽而说行③,利有攸往,乃亨。大过之时义大矣哉!

    译文

    彖曰:大过,大是超过限度的意思。房梁负重弯曲,那是整根木材不坚实,就像人的基础薄弱一样。然而,内心坚韧,就能攻克难关,从而带来喜悦,自然适宜前往,所以说亨通。大过卦的现实意义太大了。

    ①本末:上部和下部。指整根木材。②刚过而中:中部过于坚硬,比喻内心坚韧。详见辨析。③巽而说行:努力工作就能顺利就有喜悦。详见辨析。

    辨析

    1.本末弱也:比喻人的基础薄弱。

    2.刚过而中:中部过于坚韧。此卦初爻和上爻都是阴爻,中间四爻都是阳爻。刚过,中间四爻都是阳爻,因而,过于坚韧,形容坚毅的心性。中,四阳爻位于全卦的中间,喻义内心。

    3.巽而说行:因为顺利,所以高高兴兴地去做事。下卦为巽为顺,上卦为兑为悦。行,努力做事。

    〖象曰〗泽灭木,大过。君子以独立①不惧,遁世②无闷③。

    译文

    象曰:上卦为兑为泽,下卦为巽为木,一片沼泽淹没了地上的植物,称作大过卦。君子由此得到启发,就像被淹没的草木,孤立时不要害怕,脱离世俗纷扰也不要苦脑。

    ①独立:孤立。②遁世:避开世俗。③闷:苦恼。

    

【爻辞】

    〖初六〗藉①用白茅,无咎。

    〖象曰〗藉用白茅,柔在下②也。

    译文

    初六:跪拜神灵,祈祷平安,把茅草垫在地上,这没有错。

    象曰:跪拜神灵,祈祷平安,把茅草垫在地上,这是因为自己怀着一颗虔诚的心。

    ①藉:专指跪拜神灵时,铺在地上的垫子。②柔在下:在下顺从。柔,柔顺,表示虔诚。在下,谦辞,表示自己地位低。

    辨析

    人走背运,虽然烧香祷告也无济于事,但不至于招来麻烦。

    〖九二〗枯杨生稊①,老夫得其女②妻,无不利。

    〖象曰〗老夫女妻,过以相与③也。

    译文

    九二:干枯的杨柳树重新发芽,就像老汉娶了一个大姑娘为妻,没有任何不利。

    象曰:老夫少妻,虽说年龄相差比较大,但也可以在一起生活,生儿育女。

    ①稊:通“荑”,读“梯”。禾+弟,草木之弟,即“草木新芽”。②女:处女。未嫁为女,出嫁为妇。③过以相与:年龄悬殊大,但也可以共同生活。过,差距大。相,共同。与,交好。

    辨析

    1.九二爻阴位阳爻,阳刚不正,又与初爻结合,所以说老夫少妻。

    2.过以相与:年龄相差大,但能够结合。与,交好,结合,跟随。

    〖九三〗栋桡,凶。

    〖象曰〗栋桡之凶,不可以有辅也。

    译文

    九三:大梁负重弯曲,凶象。

    象曰:大梁负重弯曲,之所以呈现凶象,那是因为得不到两旁檩条的协助。

    辨析

    1.不可以有辅也:九三爻阳位阳爻,得正,与上六相应,但是,上六是全卦最上爻,又是阴爻,喻义细弱,所以说“得不到旁边的协助”。辅,旁边的协助。

    2.檩条:屋顶最粗一根横木叫大梁,或叫正梁。大梁两旁略细的横木叫檩条。大梁和檩条共同支撑着房顶。大梁如君,作用领先;檩条如臣,作用次之。如图。

    3.两侧檩条坚实,大梁不至于很快弯曲。

大过卦.jpg

    〖九四〗栋隆,吉。有它②,吝③。

    〖象曰〗栋隆之吉,不桡乎下也④。

    译文

    九四:大梁隆起,吉祥。但是,大梁根部长期暴露在外,将来一定会腐朽。

    象曰:大梁隆起吉利,那是因为它不弯曲向下的缘故。

    ①隆:高起。②有它:指初六爻。详见辨析。③吝:所有不如意都叫“吝”。④不桡乎下也:不弯曲向下。

    辨析

    1.所谓“有它”。它,指初六爻。阴爻,表示不坚实;在全卦最下方,表示大梁根部。

    初六与九四阴阳相应,表示是同一根梁木。九四爻阴位阳爻,虽不正,但阳爻喻义坚韧;初六阳位阴爻,不正,又在全卦最下方,表示大梁根部长期暴露在外,逐渐腐朽。也比喻外部环境不利。

    2.这正应了那句话:“出头椽子先烂。”提醒人们:要有城府。

    〖九五〗枯杨生华①,老妇得其士夫②,无咎无誉③。

    〖象曰〗枯杨生华,何可久也?老妇士夫,亦可丑也④。

    译文

    九五:干枯的杨柳树重新开花,就像老太太嫁给了小伙子,虽说没什么错,但名声不好。

    象曰:干枯的杨柳树重新开花,怎么会长久呢?老太太和小伙子结婚,那是一件令人厌恶的事。

    ①华:花。有花无果叫“华”。②士夫:年轻男子。③无誉:不值得称赞,指名声不好。④亦可丑也:也是一件令人厌恶的事。可,值得,应当。丑,厌恶。

    辨析

    老夫少妻,能够生儿育女,所以说“无不利”;老妻少夫,不能传宗接代,所以说“无誉”。

    〖上六〗过涉①灭顶,凶,无咎。

    〖象曰〗过涉之凶,不可咎②也。

    译文

    上六:深水渡河淹没了头顶,凶险,但没有错。

    象曰:深水渡河所带来的凶险,不要指责他。

    ①过涉:深水渡河。过,指水深。涉,渡河。②咎:指责。

    辨析

    明明有凶险,为什么还不能指责他?《大过》卦表示“负重前行”,所有磨难和艰难都要亲身体验。上六阴位阴爻得正,又是全卦最后一爻,表示虽有危险,但磨难即将过去。这是胜利前的最后一分钟,再艰难也要奋力一搏!

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