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《周易》第二十六卦,山天大蓄

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【绪言】

  六十四卦第二十六卦是《山天大蓄》。六爻纳甲法属于艮宫第三卦,五行属土。

  上一卦是《天雷无妄》,脚踏实地,精耕细作。秋季丰收入仓,大有积蓄,因此,此卦为《山天大蓄》。

  《天雷无妄》与《山天大蓄》互为综卦。脚踏实地,精耕细作,才会喜获丰收,粮仓满满,它们具备内在和外在的必然联系。

  《大蓄》卦,大有积蓄。富裕就有机会学习。寓意积蓄财富、积蓄力量、丰富知识。

  卦象叙述方式:有危险就停下来;车身与车轴分离;秣马厉兵,不敢懈怠;小牛渐渐长大;肉猪长肥,即将出栏;担负国家重任。

  五谷丰登,大有积蓄,就可以用来享用,因此,第二十七卦是《山雷颐》。

山天大蓄卦.jpg

  

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗大畜,利贞。不家食,吉,利涉大川。

  译文

  卦辞:大蓄卦,适宜把纯正的风格坚持下去。在外工作,不在家吃饭,吉利。适合开创一番大事业。

  辨析

  1.不家食:不在家吃饭。此句提醒,即使现在富了起来,也不要待在家里,还要继续努力,争取更大的财富,成就更大的事业。所以,紧接着又说“利涉大川”。

  2.涉大川:渡大河。比喻做大事。

  〖彖曰〗大畜,刚健笃实①,辉光②日新③,其德刚上④而尚贤⑤。能止健⑥,大正⑦也。不家食吉,养贤也⑧。利涉大川,应乎天也⑨。

  译文

  彖曰:大蓄卦,勤奋向上,踏实专注,事业散发着光芒,每天都有新的进展,理想不但高远,并且又能爱才尊贤。能以发扬勤奋向上的精神,那是天的法则。不在家吃饭吉利,那是为了更好地培养自己的才德。适合开创一番大事业,那是为了更好地顺应天的旨意。

  ①笃实:踏实专注。笃,深厚,专注。实,踏实,认真。②辉光:成就发出光芒,比喻显赫的成就。辉,成就。③日新:每日都在进步。新,更新,进步。④其德刚上:他具备勤奋向上的品德。德,品性。⑤尚贤:崇尚贤德之人。⑥能止健:具备勤奋向上的精神。⑦大正:天正,天理。指天的法则。⑧养贤:培养才德。⑨应乎天也:顺应天理。

  辨析

  1.刚上:下卦为乾为刚,不断上升,所以说“刚上

  2.能止健:艮卦为止向下,乾卦为健向上,所以说“能止健”。止,停留在某个境地。健,勤奋进取。

  3.大正:乾为天为正。大正,即天理。《易·乾卦》说:“大哉乾元。”

  4.所谓“止”,艮为山峰,走到大山脚下,必然停下脚步,所以为“止”。止,代表停止、阻止、停留在某个状态上。比如《山天大蓄》,上卦为艮为止,下卦为乾为健,就是要停留在“乾”的状态上,使自己长久保持刚健的品德。

  又如《山地剥》,上卦为艮为止,下卦为坤为顺,就是要停留在“坤”的状态上,使自己长久保持谦顺的形象。人都梦想“辉光日新,光宗耀祖”,谁也不想长期屈从别人,低头哈腰,所以,《山地剥》卦多有不吉之象。

  〖象曰〗天在山中,大畜。君子以多识①前言往行③,以畜其德③。

  译文

  象曰:上卦为艮为山,下卦为乾为天,山峰屹立,高耸入云,就像山在天的上边,称作大蓄卦。君子就像站在山顶瞭望一样,对于前贤的一言一行,尽收眼底,用以丰富自己的见识。

  ①多识:多多记录。识,记。②前言往行:前人的一言一行。③以畜其德:用以丰富自己的才德。畜。积蓄,丰富。德,学问。

  辨析

  《易经》中的“德”,凡属于好的方面,都称作德。比如博学、学问、涵养、正义、仁慈、善行、恩惠、福禄。《周礼·地官》有六德:“知、仁、圣、义、中、和。”

 

山天大蓄.jpg

 

【爻辞】

  〖初九〗有厉①利已②。

  〖象曰〗有厉利已,不犯③灾也。

  译文

  初九:有危险就停下来。

  象曰:有危险就停下来,那就不至于发生灾祸。

  ①厉:危险。②已:停止。③犯:发生、触发。

  〖九二〗舆说輹①。

    〖象曰〗舆说輹,中无尤也②。

  译文

  九二:车箱与车轴之间的木块掉了下来。

  象曰:车箱与车轴之间的木块掉了下来,坐在车厢内不会出现严重的问题。

  ①舆说輹:车箱与车轴之间的木块掉了下来。舆,车箱(厢)。说,通“脱”,脱落。輹,读“富”,即垫在车箱和车轴之间的木块。上面承载车箱,下面呈弧形,架在轴上,古称“车伏兔”,如同现在的减震。②中无尤也:坐在车厢内不会出现严重的问题。中,下卦中爻,指车厢内。尤,严重。

  辨析

  1.《小蓄》卦有“舆说辐”,车轮内的辐条脱落。辐条都集中在轮毂上,比喻心往一处想,劲往一处使。如果所有辐条脱落,车轮也就散掉了。详细点此查看。

  2.《大蓄》卦“舆说輹”,是指车箱与车轴相连接的木块脱落,也就是车箱脱离了车子底盘(车轮和车轴),只剩下了车箱。人坐在车厢中间,底盘脱落了,也不至于翻车伤人。所以孔子说“中无尤也”。如下图。

  3.车箱与车厢:概括地讲,车辆载人载货的空间,总称车箱。专指车辆载人的空间,称作车厢。

1596277195601144.jpg

  〖九三〗良马,利艰贞。日闲舆卫,利有攸往。

  〖象曰〗利有攸往,上合志⑤也。

  译文

  九三:人才竞争就像奔马竞逐一样激烈,需要在艰辛中奋斗下去。整天演习驾车护卫的战术,适宜这样做。

  象曰:之所以适宜这样做,原因这符合君王的意志。

  ①良马:比喻人才,或某项先进的技术。逐:奔跑。日闲:整天演习。闲,演习,演练。舆卫:驾车护卫。上合志也:符合上面的意志。

  上,指艮卦,停止。

  辨析

  1.所谓“良马逐”。乾卦为良马,九三爻是乾卦最上一爻,喻义人才竞争,不甘落后。打个比方,就像芯片制造业,中美竞争激烈,谁也不想轻易放手。但要掌握这种高科技,绝非易事,所以,一定会经历一段艰辛的路程。那怎么办呢?只有天天锻炼啊。所以下文又说“日闲舆卫”。

  2.所谓“日闲舆卫”。根据卦象,艮为山峰为阻挡,说明暂时停下来,没有行动。但不能歇息。仍要厉兵秣马,进行驾车护卫的演练。点击查看。

  〖六四〗童牛①之牿②,元吉。

  〖象曰〗六四元吉,有喜也。

  译文

  六四:小牛长出犄角,大吉。

  象曰:六四爻大吉,那是因为小牛长大让人喜悦。

  ①童牛:没有长犄角的小牛。比喻初见成就。②牿:读gù,绑在牛角上的横木,以防抵人。这里表示小牛刚长犄角。

  辨析

  1.初九刚健如马,六四温顺如牛,两爻阴阳相应,具有约束悍马的效力。另外,小牛刚长犄角,马上就能长成耕地的大牛,所以“元吉,有喜也”。

  2.所谓“牿”,寓意小牛渐渐长大了,并长出了犄角。如果小牛还没有长出犄角,那就不需要在头上绑一个横木。

    3.由于九三爻日闲舆卫,天天锻炼,所以此爻便略有成就了。因为小牛就要长大了。


  〖六五〗豮豕①之牙②,吉。

  〖象曰〗六五之吉,有庆也。

  译文

  六五:被阄割的牙猪,减弱了攻击力,能够迅速长肥,吉利。

  象曰:六五爻之所以吉利,那是因为宰杀肥猪,吃肉庆贺。

  ①豮豕:阄过的猪。豮,读fén。②牙,牙齿,寓意攻击力。

  辨析

  1.牙猪被阉割后,丧失了生育力,从而减少咬架现象,以便迅速长肥出栏。

  2.六五爻处于尊位,阳位阴爻,用“豮豕之牙”表示,虽然仍有攻击力,但保持温顺处世。

    3.从“良马逐”,到“童牛牿”,至此,肥猪出栏了。预示成功,中国掌握了芯片技术,终于造出了芯片!

       

  〖上九〗何①天之衢,亨。

  〖象曰〗何天之衢,道大行②也。

  译文

  上九:执行君王的旨意,亨通。

  象曰:执行君王的旨意,那是因为这条路畅通无阻。

  ①何天之衢:比喻执行君王的旨意。何,肩负。天之衢,天上的道路,比喻君王的指导方针。②大行:畅通无阻。

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