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《周易》第二十五卦,天雷无妄

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【绪言】

    六十四卦第二十五卦是《天雷无妄》。六爻纳甲法属于巽宫第五卦,五行属木。

  上一卦是《地雷复》,一阳复始。刚刚种下的种子,精耕细作,春天才能萌动发芽。如同事务萌芽之前,需谨慎应对,巧妙处理,不可背天妄行,因此,此卦为《天雷无妄》。

  精耕细作,五谷丰登,丰收入仓,大有积蓄,因此,第二十六卦是《山天大蓄》。

  《无妄》卦,不可狂妄。既然提示“不可狂妄”,那就“难免狂妄”,因此,人行致灾也。寓意狂妄、妄念、谨慎、背时。

  卦象叙述方式:用耕种作比喻;用耕牛作比喻;用补药作比喻。

  这是一个“两可”的卦象,更像是一个走在河边的人,稍不注意,就会“湿鞋”。因此,不要怀有非分之念,言行务必端正谦虚,就可能吉利。特殊时候,即使循规蹈矩,行为端正,也会出现过失,比如拴得好好的耕牛也照样丢失。相反,如果心存妄念,那就一定会犯下错误!

 

天雷无妄.jpg

 

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗无妄,元亨,利贞。其①匪正②有眚③,不利有攸往。

  译文

  卦辞:无妄卦,万事亨通,适合坚守纯正。如果不能正确分析,胸中无数,难免要出现差错,所以,尽量不要采取行动。

  ①其:如果。②匪正:不能正确分析。③有眚:过失犯罪。轻于“灾祸”。

  辨析

  1.元亨,万事亨通。既然此卦凶多吉少,为何又说“元亨”?这是一种极力劝勉的说法。“元亨”是有前提的,如果能够做到慎小谨微,低调处事,思想纯正,心无妄念,那就“元亨”。否则,就会犯法。眚,是自己的眼睛看不清,犯下了错误。这是人祸,而非天灾。

  2.《无妄》卦,表示播种。播种之前,要翻耕土地,粉碎土块,捡去杂草。播种时,要适当浇水,深浅适当。惊蛰之后,种子才会发芽生长。做人做事,也要像种庄稼那样精耕细作,才不至于把事情办砸。

  3.所谓匪正,“正”,指的是诚信端正。《易经》常以“正”来表示天道。匪正,就是逆天而行。

  4.眚:眼睛看不清,犯下错误。西周时,过失犯罪,叫眚。

  〖彖曰〗无妄,刚自外来①,而为主於内②。动而健③,刚中而应④。大亨以正⑤,天之命也⑥。其匪正有眚,不利有攸往。无妄之往⑦,何之矣⑧?天命不祐行⑨矣哉⑩!

  译文

  彖曰:无妄卦,刚正从外而来,反客为主。行动起来精神振奋,这是刚正前来照应的结果。正确判断才能万事亨通,这是上天固有的特性。如果不能正确分析,胸中无数,做事不免会出现差错,那就干脆放弃。《无妄》卦所说的不利于前往,到底是什么原因呢?那是因为老天都不保佑你的行动啊。

  ①刚自外来:刚正从外面前来。②而为主於内:反而成了我们的主导。③动而健:行动起来有魄力。④刚中而应:刚正遥相呼应。⑤大亨以正:万事顺利源于自己的正确判断。以,因为。正,合乎法度,判断是非。⑥天之命也:上天的本性。命,本质。⑦天命不祐行:上天都不保佑你的行动。祐,读yòu,上天的佑助。⑧无妄之往:无妄卦之所以行动不利。之,代指卦辞的“不利”。往,行动,谋为,计划。⑨何之矣:它是什么原因呢?何,什么。之,代词,前述话题。矣,表示疑问。⑩矣哉:感叹词,啊。

  辨析

  1.刚自外来:上卦到下卦,为来。外,指外卦,也叫“上卦”,代表对方。上卦为乾为刚,所以叫“刚自外来”。

  2.而为主於内:六二为阴,九五为阳。内,指内卦,也叫“下卦”,代表我方。阳主动,前来与阴相合,所以叫“为主於内”。意思是说,六二本来柔弱,九五阳刚前来相助,使得六二也具备了强健的性格。

  3.动而健:下卦为震为动,上卦为乾为健。可以翻译为“行动起来精神振奋”。因为九五阳刚前来助威,所以,一旦行动,那就精神振奋。

  4.刚中而应:乾卦象征刚健,九五爻位于乾卦中爻,象征刚健端正。九五爻与六二爻,阴阳相应。可以翻译为“刚健前来照应”。

  5.天命不祐行矣哉:有人把它分开解释,即“天命不祐,行矣哉”。其实,这本是一句话“天命不祐行矣哉”,即“天不助行”。相当于“天不助我”。

  〖象曰〗天下雷行,物与无妄①。先王以茂对时②,育万物。

  译文

  象曰:上卦为乾为天,下卦为震为雷为动,雷在天下运行,万事万物都不敢虚妄不实。先王由此受到启发,以茂盛的庄稼来验证四时变化,培育万物。

  ①物与无妄:万物都不可虚妄。物,万物,所有。与,参与其中。《左传·僖公三十三年》:“与蹇叔之子与师。”无妄,不虚妄,就是实实在在的东西。②以茂对时:根据植物长势对证四时。茂,植物茂盛的状态,指植物长势。对,对证。时,四时。

  辨析

  1.所谓“以茂对时”。有人解释为“先王效法天下雷行的强盛威势用以配合天时,养育万物,使之各不妄为。”其实,这句话关键在于“茂”字。如果“茂”字代表天雷振奋,根据自然现象,每年雷声都集中在春夏。秋冬无雷,如何对证?因此,“茂”字不是形容雷声。

  茂,艹+戊,本义为土地上长草,引申为草木茂盛。一棵草,从萌芽、幼苗、分叶、茂盛、结果、衰黄、干枯、死亡,相当于“长生、沐浴、冠带、临官、帝旺、衰、病、死”这八种状态。圣人根据这种状态变化去验证四时的变化,从而受到启发,明白了耕种和收获的季节,所以说“育万物”。

  2.所谓“育万物”,并非只是“培育植物”,这只是一个比拟手法。人生一世,草木一秋,世间万事万物的发生与结束,其过程何等相似啊!

  

【爻辞】

  〖初九〗无妄,往①,吉。

  〖象曰〗无妄之往,得志也②。

  译文

  初九:没有虚妄之念,前去谋求,吉利。

  象曰:没有虚妄之念,前去谋求,那就能够满足自己的愿望。

  ①往:前去谋求。②得志也:能够满足愿望。

  〖六二〗不耕获①,不葘畬②,则③利有攸往。

  〖象曰〗不耕获,未富也④。

  译文

  六二:不耕种就没有收获,不开荒就没有熟地,明白了这个道理,就给你指明了行动的方向。

  象曰:不耕种就没有收获,自然富不起来。

  ①耕获:种地收获。②菑畬:读zīshē,开荒种地。菑,开荒除草。畬,余田。③则,表示明白上述的道理。④未富也:不富裕。

  辨析

  所谓“菑畬”,就是开垦荒地,增加自己的耕地。

  菑,艹+巛+田,艹是野草;巛象形耕犁;田是土地。翻耕土地,除草成田。

  畬,余+田,余田,多出来的耕地。也可以解释为熟地。

天雷无妄卦.jpg

  〖六三〗无妄之灾,或系之牛①,行人之得②。邑人③之灾④。

  〖象曰〗行人得牛,邑人灾也。

  译文

  六三:做事谨慎却有灾,就像有些人把牛拴的好好的,却被行人偷走了。牛主人没了耕地的牲口,那是极大的损失。

  象曰:行人偷走了耕牛,会给牛主人带来极大的损失。

  ①或系之牛:有的人把牛栓好了。或,有些人。系,栓。②得:贪占,偷走。③邑人:乡里的人。这里指牛的主人。④灾:有灾必有失。古代丢牛是重大损失。

  辨析

  1.古时农耕以牛为主,因此,古人十分重视耕牛。秦朝颁布《厩苑律》:“秦之法,盗马者死,盗牛者加(枷)。”《唐律疏议》:“假有盗他人马牛而杀,评马牛赃直绢二十匹,若计凡盗(普通盗窃),合徒二年半。以盗杀马牛,故加凡盗一等,处徒三年。”北宋《宋刑统》:“诸故杀官私牛者,徒一年半。”

  2.邑人之灾:到底是牛主人的损失,还是同村人的损失?这要根据当时的社会状况而言。假如同村地多牛少,每逢农耕季节,大家都需要牛来耕地,这就属于同村人的损失。

  3.有关商末周初的土地制度。商周时期,国有土地是井田制,诸侯土地是分封制。贵族得到的土地,自己留下一部分作为公田,收获归自己所有。其余土地则分给老百姓,算作老百姓的私田,收获归个人所有,但要缴纳“公粮”。无论公田还是私田,都由老百姓来耕种。所以,这个耕牛是非常重要的了。有些家庭条件不好,自己缺少耕牛,那就只能租用别人家的耕牛了。

  上世纪80年代初,分田到户,老百姓种地要上交公粮。还要上交提留粮,做为乡村政府的财政收入;分田到户的同时,村委还预留大片的农田,承包给个人耕种,所收租金作为村委开支。绕开公粮不说,村委收的提留粮,大多数被村内干部瓜分,他们就像养肥了的硕鼠一样。说了这么多,一句话,80年代的农田制度与西周并无区别。要说区别,只是名词不同而已。

  〖九四〗可①贞,无咎。

  〖象曰〗可贞无咎,固②有之也。

  译文

  九四:只要坚守纯正,那就不会犯错。

  象曰:只要坚守纯正,那就不会犯错,因为这是天理。

  ①可:能够,应该。②固:本身固有的。

  〖九五〗无妄之疾①,勿药有喜。

  〖象曰〗无妄之药②,不可试也③。

  译文

  九五:生活和工作有条不紊,即便感到不舒服,也无须吃药,自然就会好起来。

  象曰:生活和工作有条不紊,就不能随便吃药。

  ①无妄之疾:生活有规律,却感到不舒服。②无妄之药:感觉挺好的药。③不可试也:不能试着吃。试,尝试。

  辨析

  1.所谓“无妄之疾”,就是“生活有规律,却感到身体不舒服”。有人翻译为“无缘无故患了病”。如果无故患病,那叫疑难杂症,不可能“勿药有喜”。疾,身体不适。

  疾病,都是患病的意思。但是,“疾”轻于“病”。疾:疒+矢,身中箭伤,依靠而息,指单纯的伤害;病:疒+一+内,疒,依靠而息;一,某一异物;内,侵入体内。微生物侵入体内,身体器官被感染。有成语“病入膏肓、一病不起”,而不说“疾入膏肓、一疾不起”。《说文解字》说:“病,疾加也。”意思是说,加重的疾,就是病。

  2.所谓“无妄之药”,纯正的药品,意思是“感觉不错的灵丹妙药”。比如“六味地黄丸”,虽然是好药,但也不可随便吃。治病要对症下药。是药三分毒,试吃的多了,一样会带来伤害。

  〖上九〗无妄行①,有眚②,无攸利。

  〖象曰〗无妄之行,穷③之灾也。

  译文

  上九:切勿妄动,否则,会因过失而犯下错误,这不会带来任何好处。

  象曰:切勿妄动,否则,会因过失而犯下错误,这是因为自己的做法已经狂妄到了极点。

  ①无妄行:不要随意行动。②眚:过失犯罪。③穷:极点。

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