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《周易》第二十四卦,地雷复

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【绪言】

  六十四卦第二十四卦是《地雷复》。六爻纳甲法属于坤宫第二卦,五行属土。

  上一卦是《山地剥》,败落到极点,物极必反,运气便开始反转。如同一枚果子,落地腐烂。果核深埋土中,内在一阳复始,外在无影无踪。土壤温润,果核翕受阴阳,凝结胎气,等待冬去春来,萌动发芽,因此,此卦为《地雷复》。

  《地雷复》与《山地剥》互为综卦。果肉腐烂,果核藏于地中,等待冬去春来,萌芽生长,重新结果,一年一年,循环无限。这是在阐释自然界物极必反,无限循环的自然现象。

  土壤温润,果核才能翕受阴阳之气。如同事务萌芽,应谨慎处理,不可背天妄行,因此,第二十五卦是《天雷无妄》。

  《复》卦是十二消息卦之一,代表十一月,正是万物收敛的季节。一阳爻处于全卦最下方,表示深埋土内的果核,五阴爻表示覆盖在果核上的土壤。有关消息卦,点此查看。

  《复》卦,往返。寓意循环、重复、转折、起点、发端、复兴、崭新、虚弱、康复。

  卦象叙述方式:不要一条路上走的太远,要明白三魂九转的道理;依靠贤德君子,以促发展;为人做事反反复复,小人之道;在合乎道德规范的情况下,自己走自己的路;身份高贵,要做到自我监督;迷途不返,酿成大祸。

 

地雷复.jpg

 

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗复,亨。出入①无疾②,朋来③无咎。反复其道④,七日来复⑤,利有攸往。

  译文

  卦辞:复卦,亨通。不要急于耕种,朋友前来做客,不会误事。大自然的法则是往返运行,过了七天,才会重新开始,所以,到那时候才适合有所行动。

  ①出入:出门与进门,指农忙。②无疾:不要着急。疾,急切。③朋来:好友前来。④反复其道:阴尽阳始,阳尽阴始,无限重复它的运行规则。⑤七日来复:过了七天,才会重新开始。指过了《剥》卦六爻,第七爻才是《复》卦。

  辨析

  1.无疾:不要着急。而不是“没有疾病”。卦意透露,《复》卦一阳开始,仅仅一阳,尚且薄弱。更重要的,当下大地封冻,尚不到耕种的季节,所以,不要急于行动,只适合与朋友在家闲聊。

  假如翻译成“没有疾病”,那么,与下一句“朋来无咎”的“无咎”,就重复了。无咎,没有灾祸。疾病也是灾祸。总不能翻译成“出入没有疾病,朋友来也没有灾祸”,这不符合逻辑。

  2.所谓“朋来”,有人解释“朋”为钱,就是“钱来了”,这是乱解。一国之君的周文王绝不可能这样庸俗,把金钱直接写到《易经》里面。朋,月+月,相互照明,本义是相互帮助的朋友。

  3.反复其道:大自然的法则是往返运行。反复,动词,往返运行。其,指大自然。道,法则、规律。

  4.七日来复:过了七天,就重新开始了。

  5.七日:有三种解释。

  第一种,卦象解释。一卦六爻,六爻运行完毕,就是下一卦的初爻。《山地剥》与《地雷复》互为综卦,次序相连,因此,《山地剥》的六爻运行完毕,就是下一卦《地雷复》。这是极其准确的解释。

  第二种,天干解释。“庚”,位于十天干的第七位。庚有转折的意思,比如,三伏天以“庚日”为转折点。所以,第七天有转变的意思。但这个说法有些牵强。

  第三种,月相解释。观察月相,每逢七日,变化较大。每月初一,朔月;初七,上弦月;十四,小望月;廿一,渐亏凸月;廿九,残月。五日为一候,一年有二十四节气七十二候,因此,过了七天,候温必不相同。所以,这种解释也合理。

  〖彖曰〗复亨,刚反①,动而以顺行②,是以出入无疾,朋来无咎。反复其道,七日来复,天行也③。利有攸往,刚长也④。复其见天地之心乎⑤!

  译文

  彖曰:复卦亨通,那是因为阳气重新始发,农耕要按照季节进行,所以,当下不要急于耕作,朋友前来做客,也不会导致误工。阴尽阳始,阳尽阴始,过了七天又从起点开始,这是自然界的运行法则。适宜耕作,那时阳气已经增长。如此重复地运行,正体现了天地的本质啊。

  ①刚反:阳气重新出现。反,返回。指初九爻。②动而以顺行:行动按照顺序进行。③天行也:自然界的运行法则。④刚长也:阳气增长。⑤复其见天地之心乎:按照规律重复运行就能体现天地的本质啊。见,显现。心,本质。

  辨析

  动而以顺行:决定行动要按照顺序进行。动,行动,指耕作,又指震卦;而,代词,指打算。以,按照;顺,顺序,指季节,又指坤卦。

  〖象曰〗雷在地中,复。先王以至日①闭关②,商旅不行③,后不省方④。

  译文

  象曰:下卦为震为雷,上卦为坤为地,雷藏大地之中,冬至之后天无雷声,所以称作复卦。先王到了冬至之后,就封闭了关口,商客不再外出,帝王也不再巡视各地。

  ①至日:冬至和夏至。因为《复》卦代表冬至,所以这里专指冬至。②闭关:封闭关口。关,古代商客的必经的出入口,常有军队驻守。③商旅不行:客商不再外出。④后不省方:帝王不再外出巡视。后,帝王。《说文》:“后,继君体也。”省方,巡视四方。

  

【爻辞】

  〖初九〗不远复,无祇悔①,元吉。

  〖象曰〗不远之复,以修身②也。

  译文

  初九:不远就回头,不至于事后追悔,大吉。

  象曰:不远就回头,那才能够思前想后,审视自身的对和错。

  ①祇悔:至于后悔。祇,达到。②修身:修正自身。

  辨析

  1.单纯地讲,冬至之后,天气寒冷,农闲季节,适宜在家休息。

  2.复杂地讲,一条路不要走到黑,该停就停下来,想想前想想后,这条路走得对不对。如果不对,那就及时回头,以免追悔莫及。

  3.无祇悔:不至于后悔。

  很多人把“祇悔”解释为“大错”,这与“元吉”文意不通。换句话说,假设有大错,结果就不会说是“大吉”。

地雷复卦.jpg

  〖六二〗休复①,吉。

  〖象曰〗休复之吉,以下仁也②。

  译文

  六二:返回休息,吉利。

  象曰:返回休息,吉利,原因是能够得到身边的人的帮助。

  ①休复:回家休息。休,依木而息,本义休息。引申为愉快。②下仁:初九爻仁德之象。下,初九爻,指身边的人。仁,仁德、亲密、帮助。

  辨析

  初九为阳为君子。六二爻以初九为靠山,所以说“以下仁也”。

  〖六三〗频复①,厉②,无咎。

  〖象曰〗频复之厉,义无咎也③。

  译文

  六三:做事反反复复,会有危险,但也不至于有灾。

  象曰:做事反反复复会有危险,在道义上讲,那还不算是犯罪。

  ①频复:频繁地回头,比喻三番五次,反反复复。②厉:危险。③义无咎也:法理上没有过错。义,指法理。

  辨析

  所谓“频复”,为人做事,反反复复,左顾右盼,见风使舵,那是小人行为。然而,这只是违背了道德准则,毕竟没有违反法律,所以不算犯罪。

  〖六四〗中行独复。

  〖象曰〗中行独复,以从道也。

  译文

  六四:行至中途,独自返回。

  象曰:行至中途,独自返回,原因是为了按照原则去做。

  辨析

  1.意思是,为了符合道德规范,无论别人怎样,自己决心回头不干了。

  2.在符合道德规范的情况下,自己走自己的路。

  〖六五〗敦复①,无悔。

  〖象曰〗敦复无悔,中②以自考③也。

  译文

  六五:真诚地回头,没有悔恨。

  象曰:真诚地回头,没有悔恨。那是因为自己身份尊贵,需要做到自我监督。

  ①敦复:真诚地回头。敦,诚恳。②中:中爻。喻示身份尊贵。③自考:自己考核自己。考,考核,审察。

  〖上六〗迷复①,凶,有灾眚②。用行师③,终有大败,以其国君凶至④,于十年⑤不克征⑥。

  〖象曰〗迷复之凶,反君道也⑦。

  译文

  上六:迷惑方向,不知回头,凶险,会导致灾祸临头。如果带兵打仗,终将大败,以致国家衰落,君王遭难,在很长一段时间内不敢再出兵征讨。

  象曰:迷失方向所带来的凶险,那是因为违反了君王的指导精神。

  ①迷复:迷惑方向,不知回头。②眚:灾难,触犯刑律。③行师:带兵打仗。④以其国君凶至:导致国家败落,君王遭难。以,导致。国君:国家和君王。⑤十年:形容长期。⑥克征:战胜。克,胜。征,战。⑦反君道也:违反了君王的旨意。反,违反。

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