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《周易》第二十一卦,火雷噬嗑

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【绪言】

  六十四卦第二十一卦是《火雷噬嗑》。六爻纳甲法属于巽宫第六卦,五行属木。

  上一卦是《风地观》,百姓仰慕,上行下效。一部分人歪曲起哄,逆道乱常,必施以刑律惩戒,因此,此卦为《火雷噬嗑》。

  刑具加身,百姓畏惧,必然巧言道德,装出一副道貌岸然的模样,因此,第二十二卦是《山火贲》。

  此卦具有特殊性,要站在统治者的立场上占断吉凶。比如,戴脚镣刺鼻子,对于统治者来讲,没有错。然而,对于触犯法律之人来讲,却是大凶。

  《噬嗑》卦,咀嚼硬物,牙齿咬合,两颊鼓动。为了吃饭,就要付出代价,甚至触犯刑律。此卦寓意饮食、阐明、争辩、刑罚、乖张、蹇滞、费力、艰难、交易。

  卦象叙述方式:脚戴枷锁;刺肤墨刑;吃到变质的腊肉;啃干肉脯啃到了铁箭头,硌了牙齿;嚼干肉嚼到了黄金,因祸得福;脖子上戴枷板。

火雷噬嗑.jpg

【卦辞】

  〖卦辞〗噬嗑,亨①。利用狱②。

  译文

  卦辞:噬嗑卦,亨通。适宜利用刑律,惩处犯罪,维护公平。

  ①亨:亨通。②狱:判决争讼。

  〖彖曰〗颐①中有物,曰噬嗑。噬嗑而亨②。刚柔分③,动而明④,雷电合而章⑤。柔得中而上行⑥,虽不当位⑦,利用狱也。

  译文

    彖曰:嘴里嚼食物,称作噬嗑卦。既能饱腹养命,又能讲话交流,所以亨通。卦象刚柔分布,形似人口,一张一合就能阐明自己的主张,就像天上的云,正负极碰到一起,就会电闪雷鸣,天光发亮。君王阴柔端正,励精图治,所以说,虽然位置不太理想,但适宜利用刑律,惩处犯罪,维护公平。

  ①颐:两腮。或是上下颌。②噬嗑而亨:咀嚼食物,讲话交流,所以亨通。而,所以。③刚柔分:刚分布,形似脸型。④动而明:一张一合就能说明问题。明,阐明、表明。⑤雷电合而章:雷电交合,天光明亮。章,照亮、明亮。⑥柔得中而上行:详见辨析。⑦虽不当位:虽然位置不合适。

  辨析

  1.所谓颐,嘴有食物,两腮鼓动。也指吃东西的时候,上下颌运动。

  2.刚柔分:初爻为阳,象下牙;四爻为阳,象舌头在搅拌食物;上爻为阳,象上牙;其它阴爻象征口腔软组织。从卦象看,就像张开嘴巴,故曰“刚柔分”。

  3.动而明:下卦为震为动,上卦为离为明。动,噏动,一张一合。明,指说明问题。

  4.雷电合而章:下卦为震为雷,上卦为离为电,电闪雷鸣,天光明亮。

  生活中,往往看到闪电后才听到雷声,其实,闪电和雷声是同时产生的。只是光传播的快,而声音传播的慢而已。

  5.柔得中而上行:六五爻阳位阴爻,不正。阴柔处于君位,不断向上。喻示勤政为民,时刻不敢怠慢。中,六五爻,既指朝廷,又表示端正。上行,向上运动,形容进取的精神。

  6.虽不当位:虽然位置不合适。不当位,比喻没有能力承担。

  

  〖象曰〗雷电噬嗑。先王以①明罚②敕法③。

  译文

  象曰:雷电交合,是噬嗑卦。先王由此得到启发,颁布法令,公正处罚。

  ①以:因此、由此。②明罚:公正处罚。明,公正、公开。《尚书·康诰》:“敬明乃罚。”③敕法:颁布法令。敕,诏令,颁布。法,法令。

  辨析

  明罚敕法:倒装句,即“皇帝颁布法令,是为了严正地惩罚犯罪”。

火雷噬嗑2.jpg

  

【爻辞】

  【初九】屦①校②灭③趾。无咎。

  【象曰】屦校灭趾,不行也④。

  译文

  初九:双脚戴上刑具,限制脚趾行动。这样做没有错。

  象曰:双脚戴上刑具,限制脚趾行动,意思是无法继续走路。

  ①屦:读jù,粗布单鞋,指脚。②校:读jiào,刑具。③灭:停止,限制。④不行也:无法走路。寓意不能再犯罪。

  辨析

  1.《噬嗑卦》是最难理解的一卦。爻辞最初的含义是什么,历来各有各的说法。

  2.《易经》出自帝王之手,自然以帝王的统治为出发点。给罪犯戴上脚枷,连脚趾都无法看见,结论是“没错”。立足帝王统治,自然是没错。如果某个人预测用到此爻,大凶,预示违法法律被绑起来。

  3.据《周礼·秋官·司刑》记载,周代有五刑,即“墨(刺字)、劓(割鼻)、宫(阉割)、刖(砍脚)、杀(处死)”。

  4.有人说,“屦校”,同“屡教”,即屡教不改,因此被砍掉脚趾。根据卦象,初爻阳位阳爻,喻示正确。并且处于最下爻,喻示最初。因此,不可能一开始就遭遇“刖刑”。刖,读yùe,断足。

  5.灭:繁体“烕”,“戊”+“一”+“火”,火本发光,藏在戊内,本义熄灭,寓意限制,使之不再正常发挥作用。

  6.屦校灭趾:平时不走正道,所以才被戴上了脚镣。

  【六二】噬①肤②灭③鼻。无咎。

  【象曰】噬肤灭鼻,乘刚也④。

  译文

  六二:活在人间,不做好事,所以才被刺破皮肤,鼻子上血肉模糊。这样做没有错。

  象曰:刑具刺破鼻子,血肉模糊,原因是自己挟权倚势造成的。

  ①噬:刺,刺破。②肤:面部大面积皮肤。③灭:毁伤,使之失去原状。④乘刚也:倚仗权势。

  辨析

  1.关于“噬肤灭鼻”,更是众说纷纭。

  噬:“口”+“竹”+“巫”。“巫”,象形,上“一”是双目;中间“两人”是两颊,“丨”是鼻子;下“一”是口。竹字头,是竹签,锋利之物。

  “噬”的意思有:⑴吃。⑵咬。⑶吞。⑷啃。⑸刺,用竹签刺。⑹形容亲密接触。

  2.噬肤:用竹尖刺破面部皮肤。

  3.灭鼻:毁伤了鼻子的原状。鼻,维持生命的呼吸器官,指活着。喻示白白地活在世上。

  有人说,割掉了鼻子。根据卦象,六二爻阴位阴爻,得正,吉祥。不可能遭到“劓刑”,只是“墨刑”(又叫黥刑)而已

  注释:劓,读yì,割掉鼻子;黥,读qíng,刀刻皮肤,伤口涂墨。

  4.乘刚:六二爻阴柔,处于初九阳爻之上。代指锋利的刑具,又代表依仗权势。

  5.鼻子被刺破,还说“无咎”,为什么?与初爻雷同,帝王为了加强统治,施加刑罚,对于统治者来讲,是应该的,所以说“无咎”。

  6.噬肤灭鼻:活在人世间,就没想过做好事,所以才被刺破皮肤。

  【六三】噬①腊肉,遇毒②,小吝③,无咎。

  【象曰】遇毒,位不当④也。

  译文

  六三:吃腊肉,遭到别人怪罪,这只是个小麻烦,不算什么大错。

  象曰:吃腊肉,遭到别人怪罪,是因为你的身份不能吃。

  ①噬:吃。②毒:治理、责怪、伤害。③吝:麻烦。④位不当:六三爻阳位阴爻,不正。喻示身份不当。

  【九四】噬①亁胏②,得金矢③,利艰贞吉。

  【象曰】利艰贞吉,未光也④。

  译文

  九四:啃干肉脯,咬出来一个箭头,适宜在艰难中保持纯正,吉利。

  象曰:适宜在艰难中保持纯正,吉利,那是因为自己的运气还不算通顺。

  ①噬:啃。②亁胏:干肉脯。亁,读gān,通“干”。胏,读zǐ,带骨头的肉脯。③金矢:金属箭头。④未光也:不通顺。光,光芒四射,引申为通顺。

  【六五】噬亁肉,得黄金①。贞厉②无咎。

  【象曰】贞厉无咎,得当也③。

  译文

  六五:嚼肉干,嚼出了黄金。正常咀嚼虽然硌了牙齿,但没有灾难。

  象曰:正常咀嚼虽然硌了牙齿,但没有灾难,那是因为吃东西小心,细嚼慢咽。

  ①黄金:考古发现,中国在殷商时期,已经发现了黄金。有人解释为黄铜,不正确。②贞厉:正确进行中遇到了危险。厉,危险,代指硌牙。③得当也:适当。六五爻上卦居中,阳位阴居,喻示细嚼慢咽。

  【上九】何①校灭耳②,凶。

  【象曰】何校灭耳,聪不明③也。

  译文

  上九:平时不听话,被戴上了枷板,凶。

  象曰:平时不听话,被戴了枷板,那是因为自己没脑子。

  ①何:读hè,负荷。②灭耳:没有使用耳朵。指听不进去。③聪不明:不聪明。

  辨析

  1.上九爻是此卦最上爻,所以,枷锁戴在了脖子上。

  2.灭耳:没有使用耳朵。指听不进去。灭:停止,没有发挥作用。

  3.何校灭耳:平时不听劝告,所以才被戴上了枷板。

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