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《周易》第十六卦,雷地豫

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【绪言】
  六十四卦第十六卦《雷地豫》。六爻纳甲法属于震宫第二卦,五行属木。
  上一卦是《地山谦》,不骄不躁,诚实守信,大家才能相互信任,和睦相处。因此,此卦为《雷地豫》。
  《地山谦》与《雷地豫》互为综卦,相互颠倒,互为彼此。寓意谦虚换来安乐。
  天下太平,百姓安居乐业,福乐绵绵,一派喜气洋洋的景象。邻邦羡慕,前来追随,因此,第十七卦是《泽雷随》。
  《豫》卦,即舒适、快乐。寓意团结、安乐、和平、服从、昏庸、腐败。
  卦象叙述方式:自鸣得意;借用铠甲比喻时刻警惕;歌舞升平,灯红酒绿;借用发髻比喻朋友团结;用正确的心态与疾病作斗争;夜夜笙歌,好景不长。
  
【卦辞】
  卦辞:豫①,利建侯②,行师③。
  译文
  卦辞:全国上下团结一心,喜笑颜开,适宜划地封侯,也适宜出兵继续征讨那些不归顺的人。

  ①豫:欢聚一堂。②利建侯:适宜建立诸侯国。指设立行政区域。利,适宜。③行师:军队出行,即出兵。

  彖曰:豫,刚应①而志行②。顺以动③,豫。豫,顺以动,故天地如之④,而况建侯行师乎?天地以顺动,故日月不过⑤,而四时不忒⑥。圣人以顺动,则刑罚清⑦而民服。豫之时义⑧大矣哉!
  译文
  彖曰:豫卦,五阴应一阳,阴柔顺从刚正而行动。顺时而动,称作豫卦。豫卦,顺时而动,原本天地的法则就是如此,何况封侯行军呢?天地顺时而动,日月运行才不会有误,四季才不会出现偏差。圣人顺时而动,刑罚就会廉洁公正,百姓心服口服。豫卦的现实意义太大了。

  ①刚应:顺应刚正。②志行:立志前行。志,心性。③顺以动:顺时而行。④故天地如之:天地的法则原本就是这样。故,原本。如之:如此。⑤不过:不会错。⑥不忒:不会差。忒,读tè,差错。⑦清:廉洁公正。⑧时义:现实意义。

  象曰:雷出地奋①,豫。先王以②作乐③崇德④,殷⑤荐之上帝⑥,以配祖考⑦。
  译文
  象曰:上卦为震为雷,下卦为坤为地,雷声轰鸣,大地振奋,称作豫卦。先王模仿雷声制定乐曲,用以歌功颂德。在盛大的祭祀仪式上,把它献给上天,并请祖先作陪,一同享用。

  ①奋:振奋,发挥。雷声过后,万物萌芽。②以:凭借(雷声)。③作乐:制定礼乐制度。④崇德:尊崇功德之人。⑤殷:古代盛大的祭祀仪式,叫殷。⑥荐之上帝:把它献给上天。荐,供奉,进献。之,指乐律。⑦以配祖考:并请祖先配享。以,并且。配,配享。祖考,祖先。
  辨析
  1.上帝:上天为大,祖先为小,所以,祭祀上天的时候,祖先只能配享祭品。
  2.配享:又称配飨、附祀。与合祭类似。有功德的人死后,放在祖先或神仙的灵位下面,一同享受香火祭品。说一句大白话,上天是主客,配享的祖先就是陪客,所以才说“以配祖考”。但是,能够跟神仙在一起被供奉,那是最高的荣誉。飨,读“享”,共同进食的意思。
  3.祖考:祖先。考,象形,老人腰弯之象,本义指老父亲。今特指死后的父亲。《礼记·曲礼下》:“生曰父、曰母、曰妻,死曰考、曰妣、曰嫔。”
 

雷地豫.jpg

 
【爻辞】
  初六:鸣豫①,凶。
  象曰:初六鸣豫,志穷②凶也。
  译文
  初六:自鸣得意,不吉利。
  象曰:初六爻自鸣得意,那会使人丧失理想,所以不吉利。

  ①鸣豫:眉飞色舞,得意洋洋。鸣,能够惊动别人的言行举止。②志穷:志气没有了。穷,尽。

  六二:介于石①,不终日②,贞吉。
  象曰:不终日,贞吉,以中正也。
  译文

    六二:身穿石质铠甲,终日警惕,如此坚持下去,吉利。
  象曰:终日警惕,坚持下去吉利,这是正确的做法。

  ①介于石:身穿石质铠甲。介,甲衣、铠甲。②不终日:没有一天(疏忽大意)。
  辨析
  介于石:身穿石质铠甲。比喻手不离枪,时刻准备打仗。此爻提醒,在安乐的氛围下,时刻要警醒自己,不能大意。
  民国总统蒋介石。字“介石”,取自爻辞。名“中正”,取自象辞。是什么意思呢?介石,手不离枪,时刻警惕。中正,始终保持一个端正的执政理念。蒋介石执政期间,军阀混战、抗日战争、国共战争,连年烽火,蒋介石确实达到了“不终日”,“介石”一词名副其实。蒋介石虽然败退台湾,偏居一隅,但他始终认为是一个中国,其政见也符合“中正”一词。

  六三:盱豫①。悔迟有悔②。
  象曰:盱豫有悔,位不当也。
  译文
  六三:睁大眼睛只顾欣赏歌舞。快些悔改吧,如果迟了,必然留下悔恨。
  象曰:睁大眼睛只顾欣赏歌舞,必然要留下悔恨,那是因为自己身份不是那种人。

  ①盱豫:睁大眼睛看歌舞。盱,读xū,睁大眼睛。②悔迟有悔:悔悟迟了,要留下悔恨。悔,悔改、悔悟、悔恨。
  辨析
  1.盱:睁大眼睛。这是呆乎乎的大眼睛,而不是精明的大眼睛。
  2.孙权为了湮灭刘备之志,利用联姻之计,邀刘备到江东与妹妹成亲。刘备成亲后,孙权精选美女乐师,让刘备整天沉浸在舞曲之中,致使刘备乐不思蜀,整天只顾睁大眼睛欣赏歌舞,此正是“盱豫”。幸好有诸葛亮辅佐,刘备很快就幡然悔悟,才不至于“有悔”。
  刘备死后,刘婵继位,刘婵乳名阿斗,孱弱无能,胸无大志,整天只顾瞪着大眼睛玩蛐蛐,这也是“盱豫”。

  九四:由豫①,《大有》得,勿疑朋盍簪②。
  象曰:由豫,《大有》得,志大行也③。
  译文
  九四:营造欢乐祥和的氛围,能结交很多朋友。不用怀疑,朋友们都能聚在一起。
  象曰:营造欢乐祥和的氛围,能结交很多朋友,自己的志向才能进一步发展。

  ①由豫:营造喜庆氛围。由,践行,创立。②大有得:得到了《大有》卦的状态。见辨析。③朋盍簪:朋友全部到场。盍,读hé,全部。簪,读zān,古人用来绾住头发的首饰,比喻紧密联系在一起。如图。
  辨析
  1.由豫:营造欢乐的氛围。由,动词,营造。
  2.大有得:得到大有卦。《大有卦》本义就是结交朋友,共谋发展。

勿疑朋盍簪.jpg

  六五:贞疾①,恒不死。
  象曰:六五贞疾,乘刚②也。恒不死,中未亡也③。
  译文
  六五:用正确的心态与疾病抗争,就能长久地生存下去。
  象曰:六五爻在疾病中坚持,原因是自己的心态刚强。长久没有死去,是因为条件优越。

  ①贞疾:在疾病中坚持。贞,用正确的心态去坚持。②乘刚:阴柔处于刚强的位置。③中未亡也:处于尊贵的位置,所以没有死亡。
  辨析
  1.乘刚:六五爻本是阳位,是帝王的象征。但阴爻在阳位,不正。柔乘刚,必有伤。
  2.中未亡也:处于帝王的位置上,生活优裕,医疗条件好,所以,才没有死。中,指六五爻,是上卦的中爻。

  上六:冥豫①。成有渝②,无咎。
  象曰:冥豫在上③,何可长也?
  译文
  上六:沉浸在玩乐之中必然丧失理智。只要改变就有成功的机会,也不会酿成大错。
  象曰:过度玩乐,怎么能长久呢?

  ①冥豫:一味地娱乐。冥,愚昧,专心,深远。具有“玩物丧志”的意思。②成有渝:只要改变就有成功的机会。渝,改变,解脱。③在上:指上六爻。这里指过度、过分。

 

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