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《周易》第十五卦,地山谦

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【绪言】
  六十四卦第十五卦《地山谦》。六爻纳甲法属于兑宫第六卦,五行属金。
  上一卦是《火天大有》,位高权重,身份尊贵,要戒骄戒躁,时刻警醒,永远保持谦虚进取的精神。因此,此卦为《地山谦》。
  《谦》卦,寓意谦逊、谦卑、低调、低下、匮乏、贫穷、内敛、内向、包容。
  卦象叙述方式:生活在社会底层,抬头之日尚远,要做到“谦而又谦”,故曰“谦谦”;身份提升,要大力宣扬自己谦虚待人,故曰“鸣谦”;辛苦劳作,也要谦虚谨慎,不要恃功自负,故曰“劳谦”;辅佐领导,更要谦虚恭顺,故曰“撝谦”。从低到高,不骄不躁,笼络了天下民心,从而一呼百应,成就自己的大业。

  为人谦虚,做事低调,消除人们的戒备心,大家才能和睦相处,其乐融融。因此,第十六卦是《雷地豫》。
  
【卦辞】
  卦辞:谦,亨,君子有终①。
  译文
  卦辞:谦卦,亨通。君子一定会有所成就。

  ①有终:有结果。终,冬季收藏财富,是一年之终,借指成功。

  彖曰:谦,亨,天道①下济②而光明③,地道④卑而上行⑤。天道亏盈⑥而益谦⑦,地道变盈⑧而流谦⑨,鬼神害盈⑩而福谦⑪,人道恶盈⑫而好谦⑬。谦尊而光⑭,卑而不可踰⑮,君子之终也⑯。
  译文
  彖曰:谦卦亨通,原因在于太阳高照而大地光明,大地低卑而努力上行。上天之德,减损盈满而补偿不足;大地之德,改变盈满而流入低洼;鬼神之德,惩罚盈满而赐福谦逊;人类之德,厌恶盈满而喜欢谦虚。发扬谦虚的美德就能名扬四海,但也不能过分谦卑,君子一生必有成就。

  ①天道:日月星辰的运行规律。②下济:具有降雨和普照的双重含义。③光明:具有明亮和成果的双重含义。④地道:地球的运行规律。⑤卑而上行:卑下向上运行。卑,低下、谦卑。⑥亏盈:减损盈满。亏,动词,耗损。盈,多出来的,比喻骄傲自满。⑦益谦:赏赐给那些不足的。益,增加。谦,不足。⑧变盈:多余之后就要变化。⑨流谦:流入低洼。谦,低洼。⑩害盈:厌恶骄傲。害,讨厌,不喜欢。⑪福谦:赐福给谦虚的人。谦,贫穷。⑫恶盈:厌恶骄傲。⑬好谦:喜爱谦虚的人。谦,谦虚。⑭谦尊而光:注重谦虚谨慎的精神就能发扬光大。尊,重视,注重。⑮卑而不可踰:但也不能谦卑过分。踰,过分、严重。⑯君子之终也:君子一生必有善报。终,好结果。
  辨析
  1.天道下济:天降雨,土地才能培养植物;天光明,人类才能获得温暖。下济,向下帮忙。
  2.天道亏盈:即月亮盈亏。月圆为盈,月缺为亏。初一之后,月亮越来越大(减亏)。十五十六,月亮达到最大(望,满盈)。十七之后,月亮越来越小(增亏)。年年月月,无限循环。
  月相盈亏,相当于人生变化,运势有高有低,循环不息。
  3.益谦、流谦、福谦、好谦,四个“谦”的含义各有不同。益谦的“谦”是缺失、流谦的“谦”是低洼、福谦的“谦”是贫寒、好谦的“谦”是谦逊。

  象曰:地中有山,谦。君子以裒多益寡①,称物平施②。
  译文
  象曰:上卦为坤为地,下卦为艮为山,山在地中,称作谦卦。作为君子,应该减富扶贫,衡量物资,平均分配。

  ①裒多益寡:减少多余,补偿缺少。裒:读póu,减少。②称物:衡量物资。称,衡量轻重。平施:平均分配。平,公正,均等。施,给予。
  辨析
  裒多益寡,称物平施:在今天,富人多则千亿,穷人却难以温饱,尚无做到“减富扶贫,平均分配”。所以,这些话是孔子在帮助统治者唱高调,全是骗人的鬼话。
 

地山谦.jpg

 
【爻辞】
  初六:谦谦君子,用涉大川。吉。
  象曰:谦谦君子,卑以自牧①也。
  译文
  初六:谦虚谨慎的人,才有机会渡过大河做大事。吉祥。
  象曰:谦虚谨慎的人,是以谦卑的理念来培养自己的思想品德。

  ①谦谦:既谦虚又谨慎。②自牧:自我修养。牧,养。
  辨析
  初六爻,处于全卦最下方,预示社会最底层,做人不但要谦虚,而且还要谨慎。所以叫“谦谦君子”。
  第一个“谦”,谦虚。第二个“谦”,语气加强,即谨慎。

  六二:鸣谦,贞吉。
  象曰:鸣谦①贞吉,中②心得③也。
  译文
  六二:在所有场合都要显示自己谦虚谨慎的品德,如此坚持下去,吉利。
  象曰:在所有场合都能显示自己谦虚谨慎的品德,坚持下去吉利,这是自己的人生理念。

  ①鸣谦:声明谦虚。鸣,申明、声明、表明。②中:六二爻阴位阴爻,预示中庸。③心得:内心得到的经验。

  九三:劳谦①,君子有终,吉。
  象曰:劳谦君子,万民服也。
  译文
  九三:辛劳工作,谦虚恭顺,君子一定会成功,吉利。
  象曰:辛劳谦逊的君子,天下人都心服口服。

  ①劳谦:辛劳工作,谦虚恭顺。

  六四:无不利,撝谦①。
  象曰:无不利,撝谦,不违则也。
  译文
  六四:没有任何不利,那要做到谦虚恭顺地辅佐君王。
  象曰:没有任何不利,谦虚恭顺地辅佐君王,那是因为没有违反原则。

  ①撝:读wéi。手+為,本义是帮助、协助。
  辨析
  此爻接近六五爻,预示辅佐君王,所以,才叫“撝谦”。唯唯诺诺地帮君王工作。

  六五:不富①以其邻②,利用侵伐③,无不利。
  象曰:利用侵伐,征不服也④。
  译文
  六五:在大家面前不逞能不炫耀,谦虚待人,(才能一呼百应)带兵出征,没有不利。
  象曰:带兵出征,是要征讨那些不归顺的诸侯国。

  ①不富:不炫耀自己的资本。富,资本。②以其邻:在邻居面前。以,在。邻,指所有人。③利用侵伐:适合使用战争手段出兵征讨。④征不服也:征讨那些不归顺的诸侯国。
  辨析
  1.本句话最紧要的就是“不富以其邻”。《谦》卦的宗旨就是谦虚谨慎。六五爻,阳位阴爻,寓意君王柔慈谦逊。曾记得,《地天泰》六四爻也出现过这样的说法:“翩翩不富以其邻,不戒以孚。”
  不富,不炫耀自己的财富和才华。不富以其邻,不在大家面前炫耀自己富裕,不在大家面前炫耀自己有能力,不在大家面前炫耀自己的强项,这就是“不富以其邻”。这也是谦逊处世的另一种说法。
  2.征不服也:征讨那些不归顺的诸侯国。为什么是诸侯国呢?因为下一爻有说“征邑国”。

  上六:鸣谦,利用①行师②,征邑国③。
  象曰:鸣谦,志未得也。可用行师,征邑国也
  译文
  上六:在大家面前要显示出谦虚礼让的品德,(便能换来大家的信任),所以,适宜利用这种机会出兵,讨伐诸侯国。
  象曰:在大家面前要显示出谦虚礼让的品德,那是因为你还没有实现自己的愿望。适宜出兵,是因为要征讨那些诸侯国。

  ①利用:适宜使用(这个机会)。②行师:出兵。③邑国:大夫之邑,诸侯之国。
  辨析
  鸣谦,志未得也:为什么要在所有人面前都要表现的谦虚,那是因为自己还没有达到自己的志向。如果有一天达到了自己的志向,坐上了富贵宝座,那就没有必要再谦虚待人了。按照孔子的理念,没有成功之前,就要谦虚礼让,笼络人心。

 

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