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《周易》第十四卦,火天大有

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【绪言】
  六十四卦第十四卦《火天大有》。六爻纳甲法属于乾宫第八卦,五行属金。
  上一卦是《天火同人》,团结一切能够团结的人,群策群力,共谋发展,共享财富,因此,此卦为《火天大有》。
  《天火同人》颠倒过来,就是《火天大有》,它们互为综卦。两卦的本质区别在于:《同人》卦民拥君,《大有》卦君爱民。
  《大有》卦,寓意富足、昌盛、恤民、服众、拼搏、开明。
  卦象叙述方式:第一.重载车辆要走大路,比喻做大事要光明磊落。第二.贵人享受俸禄,百姓只能苦干。第三.掩饰实力,明哲保身。第四.树立威信,让天下人服从。第五.尊贵是天命。
  位高权重,锦衣玉食,身份尊贵,必然附庸风雅,有必要装出一副谦谦君子的样子,因此,第十五卦是《地山谦》。

【卦辞】
  卦辞:大有,元①亨。
  译文
  卦辞:大有卦,万事亨通。

  ①元:第一,整体,所有。

  彖曰:大有,柔得尊位①,大中②而上下应之③,曰大有。其德刚健④,而文明⑤应乎天⑥而时行⑦,是以元亨。
  译文
  彖曰:大有卦,柔慈处于尊贵的位置。权利集中,天下人纷纷前来顺应,称作大有。大有卦具备刚正强健的魄力,并且与时俱进,把文明的社会风气传扬开来。所以,万事亨通。

  ①柔得尊位:柔慈得到尊贵的位置。六五爻为尊位,阳位阴居,尊贵柔慈之象。②大中:权利集中。大,重大、重要。中,中心、集中,指六五爻,尊贵之象。③上下应之:所有人都来顺应。应,顺应,迎合。④刚健:刚正强健。特指乾卦,即上天。⑤文明:博学开明。代指离卦,即太阳。⑥应乎天:顺应上天的旨意。⑦时行:四季运行,比喻适时行动。时,春夏秋冬。
  辨析
  1.柔得尊位:六五爻为帝王之象,阳位阴居,象征尊贵而又柔慈。
  2.大中:重要人物在高贵的六五爻上。即权利集中。
  3.上下应之:所有人都来顺应。全卦只有六五爻是阴爻,又处于尊贵之位。阴阳相配,所以,其它五个阳爻都想来顺应。上,指上九爻,代表贤达志士。下,指九四爻和下卦三个阳爻,代表天下黎民。这正是武则天一手遮天的卦象。
  4.文明应乎天而时行:字面意思是“太阳顺应上天而随四季运行”。

  象曰:火在天上,大有。君子以遏①恶扬善,顺天休命②。
  译文
  象曰:上卦为离为火,下卦为乾为天,是大有卦。君子应该禁绝邪恶,传扬善良,顺应天意,发布正确的诏令。

    ①遏:阻止。②休命:美好的命令。休,美好。对百姓有用的,即正确的。

火天大有.jpg

【爻辞】
  初九:无①交害②,匪咎③,艰则无咎④。
  象曰:大有初九,无交害也。
  译文
  初九:缺乏交往所带来的不利,不会出现什么大错。从坎坷的道路上走来,(能够磨练自己的意志)没有错。

  象曰:大有卦初九爻,是因为缺乏交往而带来一些小小的不利。
  ①无:缺乏,没有。②交害:交往的害处。交,交往。害,不利。③匪咎:没有错误。④艰则无咎:从艰难险阻中走过来没有错。
  辨析
  1.无交:没有交往。初九居下,是此卦的开始。初九为阳,得正,吉。但是,九四爻也为阳,它们没有相互呼应,因而没有交往。
  2.初九爻,是社会的最底层,只能日出而作,日入而息,过着安分守己的生活,因而不算什么大错。他们像奴隶一样辛苦劳作,所以说:“艰则无咎。”
  3.翻译爻辞,要结合爻象,以及整体文意,才能做出符合逻辑的解释。假如只看字面,此句话则是“没有交往的伤害,没有错,艰难没有错。”如此,文句不通,人间也没有这样的哲理。
  4.本句话,出现了一个“害”、两个“咎”。害是伤害,但根据文意只能解释为“小小的不利”或“小小的妨碍”。“匪咎”的“咎”,小小的过失。“艰则无咎”的“咎”,语气加重,即灾祸、罪过。

  九二:大车以载,有攸往①,无咎。
  象曰:大车以载,积中②不败③也。
  译文
  九二:用大车运输,只要打算前去做事,就没有错。
  象曰:用大车运输,最好在大路中间行驶,减少颠簸,才不会损坏车子。

  ①有攸往:有事去做。有,有事情。攸,某些,不特定。往,去做。②积中:集中。积,堆积货物。中,九二爻在下卦的中间,比喻车辆的中部。③败:毁坏。
  辨析
  1.积中不败:是双层含义,第一,载重车辆要走大路的中间,减少颠簸,才不会损坏车子。第二,把货物堆在车子的中间,就不会对车子造成毁坏。
  从字面理解:“货物堆在车箱的中间”。似乎最正确。但是,装车的道理任何人都明白,孔子不可能说出这样的大白话。所以,应该解释为:“载重车辆不能走偏,要走大路的中心,减少颠簸,以防翻车。”
  2.大车以载,比喻做大事。做大事要中规中矩,走光明大道,而不是歪门邪道。这才是文王和孔子的本意。
  3.积中:货物堆积在中间。也就是“集中”的意思。暗指集中权力,集中权威,以便掌控天下。

  九三:公①用亨②于天子,小人弗克③。
  象曰:公用亨于天子,小人害④也。
  译文
  九三:公务员吃国家饭,普通人做不到。
  象曰:公务员吃国家饭,普通人难免心生羡慕。

  ①公:王公贵族。②用亨:享受俸禄。用,生活所需的资财。亨,同“享”,享受。③弗克:不能得到。克,胜任、获得。④害:嫉妒。
  辨析
  吃不到国家饭,只能解释为“普通人嫉妒。”害,是嫉妒、羡慕,而不是“不利”。吃不到国家的饭,凭自己辛劳苦干,怎么会有不利呢?

  九四:匪其彭①,无咎。
  象曰:匪其彭,无咎,明辨晰也。
  译文
  九四:掩饰自己的强大,就不会犯错。
  象曰:掩饰自己的强大,就不会犯错,原因在于自己能够看清时局。

  ①匪其彭:不要显露自己的强大。彭,强大、自傲。《诗经·大雅·大明》:“檀车煌煌,驷騵彭彭。”
  辨析
  1.对于“彭”字的解释有很多。但根据卦象,九四爻阳爻,预示强盛,阳爻占阴位,不正。第二,九四爻靠近九五爻,九五爻为君王,伴君如伴虎,因此,才告诫说:“不要显摆自己强大。”
  2.如果看不清时局,狂妄自大,君王必定内心不安,最后带来杀身之祸。

  六五:厥孚①交如②,威如③,吉。
  象曰:厥孚交如,信以发志也④。威如之吉,易⑤而无备⑥也。
  译文
  六五:拿出最大的诚信,与天下人交往,从而,在他们面前树立了自己的威信,吉利。
  象曰:拿出最大的诚信,与天下人交往,因为诚信交往才能实现自己的理想。之所以在他们面前树立了威信才会吉利,那是因为自己平易近人,不让别人产生戒备。

  ①厥孚:拿出最大的诚信。厥,尽力而为。孚,诚信。②交如:与他们交往。如,代指所有人。③威如:在他们面前树立威信。④信以发志也:因为诚信能够达到自己的志向。发志,扩展志向。⑤易:传播亲近。《东观汉记》:“绝其本根,勿能使能殖,畏其易也。”⑥无备:没有戒备。

  上九:自天佑之,吉无不利。
  象曰:大有上吉,自天佑也。
  译文
  上九:上天都能保佑他,吉祥,没有不利。
  象曰:之所以大有卦这一爻最吉利,是因为上天都能保佑他。

 

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