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《周易》第十三卦,天火同人

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【绪言】
  六十四卦第十三卦《天火同人》。六爻纳甲法属于离宫第八卦,五行属火。
  上一卦是《天地否》,天地不合,政令不通,离心离德,相互猜忌,以致社会停滞不前。人们逐渐认识到了这种不利的局面,因此,此卦为《天火同人》。
  《天地否》二爻、四爻、五爻、六爻变,即《天火同人》。
  《同人》卦,同人,即同仁、同志。寓意团结、共同、聚集、联合、合伙、合作、军队、帮派。
  卦象叙述方式:团结起来力量大,就可以抵御侵略,保卫家园。
  统治天下,共同发展,因此,第十四卦是《火天大有》。
 

天火同人.jpg

 
【卦辞】
  卦辞:同人①于野②,亨,利涉大川③,利君子贞。
  译文
  卦辞:团结天下所有能够团结的人,共谋大计,亨通。有利于跋山涉水做大事,有利于大人物坚持下去。

  ①同人:团结别人,共同参与。同,共同参与。②野:双重含义,即旷野和大众,寓意天下所有人。③利涉大川:有利于渡过江河,比喻做大事。大川,大河。可能是指长江、黄河、淮河、汉水四大水系。

  彖曰:同人,柔得位得中①,而应乎乾②,曰同人。同人曰:“同人于野,亨,利涉大川。”乾行也③。文明以健④,中正而应⑤,君子正也⑥。唯君子为⑦能通⑧天下之志⑨。
  译文
  彖曰:之所以能够团结大众,是因为民众正处于顺从的位置上,与上级遥相呼应,因此才叫同人。《同人》卦说:“团结天下所有能够团结的人,共谋大计,亨通。有利于跋山涉水做大事。”这是领导人高瞻远瞩的做事风格。强力推进社会文明,正义之人就应该响应。身为大人物,这是正确的做法。只有大人物的所作所为才能通收天下人心。

  ①柔得位得中:温顺能够处在适中的地方。柔,指六二爻,阴位阴爻,代指民众。得,能够。位,位置,指时期。中,适中,正合适,指六二爻。②而应乎乾:与乾卦相应。而,与。应,相呼应。③乾行也:乾卦的做事风格。乾,指大人物自强不息。行,行动。④文明以健:大力推行天下文明。文,博学。明,开明。以,承上启下,指推动。健,大力。⑤中正而应:中规中矩的人会响应。中正,中规中矩,指六二爻。应,响应。⑥君子正也:大人物的正确做法。正,合乎法则。⑦为:行动,治理。《世说新语》:“诸葛瑾为豫州。”⑧通:传达,引申为笼络。⑨天下之志:天下人心。天下,指民众。志,心。

  象曰:天与火,同人。君子以类族①辨物②。
  译文
  象曰:上卦为乾为天,下卦为离为火,天下有火,火势上升,天火相亲,是同人卦。君子要明辨物以类聚,人以群分的道理。

  ①类族:万物聚集在一起。类,不同的种类,万物。族,聚集。②辨物:分辨万事万物。物,事物,物品。
  辨析
  天下有火,是朗朗乾坤的景象。因此,君子要像太阳照射天下一样,辨别万事万物,以定类属。
  
【爻辞】
  初九:同人于门①,无咎。
  象曰:出门同人,又谁咎也?
  译文
  初九:大家聚集在门外,没有错。
  象曰:大伙结伴而行,谁又会出现危险呢?

  ①门:门口,特指门外。没有进入室内是门口。所有人都可以在门口,因此,指天下所有人。

  六二:同人于宗①,吝。
  象曰:同人于宗,吝道也。
  译文
  六二:只与同族人共事,那是思想狭隘。
  象曰:只与同族人共事,是目光短浅的做法。

  ①宗:宗亲,比喻朋友圈,局限于某个范围内。

  九三:伏戎①于莽②,升其高陵③,三岁不兴④。
  象曰:伏戎于莽,敌刚也⑤。三岁不兴,安行也⑥。
  译文
  九三:军队埋伏在山下的草丛之中,时不时登上山冈(观察敌情),三年也没有决定出兵。
  象曰:军队埋伏在草莽之中,是因为敌人强大。三年也没有出兵,原因是为了确保国家安全。

  ①伏戎:伏兵。戎,军队。②莽:草丛。③升其高陵:登上高岗。升,登,上。陵,高岗。④不兴:没有出兵。不,没有。⑤敌刚也:敌人强大。⑥安行:安全的做法。
  辨析
  九三爻辞讲的是:“时刻注意,准备打仗。”至于“伏戎于莽,升其高陵”的细节,只是一个比拟法,说明执政者居安思危,时刻警醒的思想。不是犹犹豫豫不敢打,而是不想打!
  三年不兴:三年也没有决定出兵。很多人解释为“三年也不敢出兵”,不正确,因为孔子解释说“安行也。”意思是为了安全起见,时刻谨慎,以防外入侵。

  九四:乘①其墉②,弗克攻③,吉。
  象曰:乘其墉,义弗克也④。其吉,则困而反则⑤也。
  译文
  九四:军队攻上城墙,不再继续强攻,吉利。
  象曰:已经攻上城墙,但道义上不能再进攻。之所以吉利,是因为能及时挽回这种危难的局面。

  ①乘:进攻,登上。《诗经·卫风·氓》:“乘彼垝垣。”②墉:读yōng,城墙。③弗克攻:没有攻破。克,进攻。攻,营建,坚固。④义弗克也:道义上不允许再进攻。义,道义。⑤困而反则:挽回被围困的局面。反,动词,颠倒过来,挽回。则,做法,当前的局势。
  辨析
  从此爻可以看出,九三爻从来都不愿意兴兵打仗。即使敌人攻上了城墙,也没有拼死抵抗,而是摆明道理,申明大义,不战而屈敌退兵。

  九五:同人,先号啕,而后笑,大师克②相遇③。
  象曰:同人之先,以中直④也。大师相遇,言相克⑤也。
  译文
  九五:军队出征,亲人担心,起初痛哭,但后来欢笑。原因是大军胜利会师。
  象曰:亲人们开始的情形,那是人之常情。大军会师,是讨论取胜的经过。

  ①同人:信仰相同的人。这里指军队。②克:胜利。③相遇:相逢,会师。④中直:内心应该的。直,应当。⑤相克:取胜。

  上九:同人于郊,无悔。
  象曰:同人于郊,志未得也。
  译文
  上九:团结郊外的人,不会后悔。
  象曰:只团结郊外的人,很难实现理想中的大业。

  辨析
  “郊”与“野”,周时,距国都五十里叫近郊,百里叫远郊。所谓郊,也就是方圆百里的范围。野,百里之外的旷野,比喻天下。
  大人物要心怀天下,团结天下所有能团结的人。此爻只团结郊外的人,未免目光短浅,因此孔子说:“志未得也。”

 

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