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《周易》第十二卦,天地否

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【绪言】
  六十四卦第十二卦《天地否》。六爻纳甲法属于乾宫第四卦,五行属金。
  上一卦是《地天泰》,天地交会,物产富饶,政通人和,万事亨通。然而,福兮祸所寄,物质生活越丰富,人们就更容易变得贪婪,所以,这种繁荣祥和的状态不会永久持续下去,因此,此卦为《天地否》。
  《天地否》与《地天泰》互为综卦。也就是说,把《地天泰》颠倒过来,就是《天地否》。《天地否》颠倒过来,就是《地天泰》。
  《否》卦,寓意阻逆、闭塞、分离、猜忌、敌视、乖张、逆运、困厄。
  卦象叙述方式:用茅草根比喻民众团结,用桑树根比喻政权牢固。同时,又阐释了在逆境中的处世哲理,比如包承、包羞。
  离心离德,相互猜忌,政令不通,腐化堕落,倒推历史的车轮,人类怎能向前发展?天长日久,人们逐渐觉醒,因此,第十三卦是《天火同人》。

【卦辞】
  卦辞:否①之匪人②,不利君子贞③。大往小来④。
  译文
  卦辞:否卦正是小人得势的时候,不利于君子正直无私。如果思想迂腐不知变通,那么,就会付出多,得到少。

  ①否:读pǐ,闭塞,不顺。②匪人:不算人的人,即小人。③贞:坚持纯正的品德。④大往小来:付出多的,换来少的。往,失去。来,得到。上卦为乾为大,叫大往;内卦为坤为小,叫小来。

  彖曰:否之匪人,不利君子贞。大往小来,则是天地不交,而万物不通也。上下不交,而天下无邦①也。内阴而外阳,内柔而外刚,内小人而外君子。小人道长,君子道消也。
  译文
  彖曰:否卦是小人得势的时候,不利于君子正直无私。如果不知变通,那你就付出多,得到少。原因在于此时天地之气不通畅,万事万物不和谐。如果上下级不沟通不和谐,那么,周边各国就不一定与你一心。下卦为阴,上卦为阳,下卦为柔顺,外卦为刚正,所以,预示内卦为小人,外卦为君子。此正是小人得势而发展,君子失势而停滞。

  ①邦:君王分封的疆域。这里指交好的邦邻。

  象曰:天地不交,否;君子以俭德①辟难②,不可③荣以禄④。
  译文
  象曰:天地之气不通畅,万事万物不和谐,称作否卦。君子应以俭朴内敛的品德,排除困难。千万不要去追求荣华富贵。

  ①俭德:俭朴内敛的品德。俭,节省,具有节约和收敛的双重含义。②辟难:排除困难。辟,排除。难,困难。③不可:语气加重,千万不能。绝对不能。④荣以禄:追求荣华富贵。荣,动词,追求荣耀。禄,福气,俸禄。
  辨析
  俭德:字面直译是“节约的品德”。德,指人的行为举止。所以,这里的“俭”,不只生活节俭,也要减少自己的行为,少说话少主张,不要太张扬,以免小人嫉恨。

天地否.jpg

【爻辞】
  初六:拔茅①,茹以其汇②。贞吉,亨。
  象曰:拔茅贞吉,志在君也③。
  译文
  初六:拔出来的茅草,它们根系发达,紧紧地牵连在一起,象征团结。坚持下去吉利,亨通。
  象曰:茅草根缠绕在一起象征大家团结一心,坚持下去吉利,那是因为您心怀大志。

  ①茅:茅草。②茹以其汇:它的根系牵连在一起。茹,动词,根茎牵连在一起。汇,同类相聚。③志在君也:您心怀大志。君,尊称。
  辨析
  《地天泰》初爻说:“拔茅,茹以其汇。征吉。”与此爻几乎相同。只有“征”与“贞”之别。征与贞,音同,但含义完全不同。
  征:出发。表示行动。形势大好,那就大胆地出发,也可以远行谋求,也可以出兵征讨。
  贞:坚守纯正。表示静守。一般情况下,运气不是太好,就要坚守纯正,才不至于有咎。

  六二:包承①,小人吉②,大人否亨③。
  象曰:大人否亨,不乱群④也。
  译文
  六二:屈膝卑躬,承受委曲,只适合小人去做,品德高尚的大人物不适宜这样做。
  象曰:品德高尚的大人物不应该这样做,那是因为他不能因此而影响老百姓。

  ①包承:包容奉承。包,包容,度量宽大。承,奉承,顺从。②小人吉:小人适合做。吉,有利。③否亨:阻逆不顺。否,读pǐ,闭塞。亨,通顺。④乱群:惑乱百姓。
  辨析
  在这个世界上,“包容”有两种类型。第一类是君子,他们胸襟宽广,不拘小节。第二种就是那些趋炎附势的小人,任由主子驱使,无论主子如何打骂,他依然笑脸作陪,这也属于大度包容。比如《水浒传》中的高衙内,听说高俅当了大官,直接跪地叫爹,是标准的“包承”。
  此爻的“包承”,讲的就是小人的肚量。君子对小人这种奴颜婢膝的嘴脸不屑一顾,因此,文王才说:“大人否亨”。孔子也担心小人的这种行为在社会上传布开来,于是解释道:“大人不乱群也。”意思是说,君子具有影响力,是老百姓的楷模,不能乱来,以免老百姓模仿。

  六三:包羞。
  象曰:包羞,位不当也。
  译文
  六三:屈膝卑躬,承受耻辱。
  象曰:屈膝卑躬,承受耻辱,在于自己的身份与社会层次不匹配。

  辨析
  关于“包承”和“包羞”。现实社会中,不单是小人能做到包承包羞,而事实是,很多名人都是从“包承包羞”做起,之后才变成了君子。比如影视女明星,如果没有“包承包羞”,很难成为明星。成了君子,就有可能驱使别人,让别人也“包承包羞”。
  搜罗古今名人,无不如此。

  九四:有命①无咎。畴②离③祉④。
  象曰:有命无咎,志行也。
  译文
  九四:在天有命,没有灾难。同类人前来投靠,将来一定享受福禄。
  象曰:在天有命,没有灾难,那就志在必行。

  ①有命:天命有成就。命,天命,指有成就的命。②畴:同类。③离:依附、投靠。④祉:指天下的大福。
  辨析
  九四爻,是全卦阳爻的开始。既是开始,必定刚性不足,所以,爻辞只是说:“在天有命,没问题。”下文紧接着又说:“凡是同类的朋友,都来跟随着他吧,将来会享福的。”天下之事,权力之争,一开始就站对了队,就会得到富贵。如果开始就站错了队,一定要遭殃!

  九五:休否①,大人吉。其亡其亡②,系于③苞④桑⑤。
  象曰:大人之吉,位正当也⑥。
  译文
  九五:逆境已经过去,带头的人物开始顺利。这种顺利的局面是否还会失去,如同桑树的树干与根系,是否根深蒂固。
  象曰:大人物开始顺利,是他所处的位置正适合他想要做的事。

  ①休否:闭塞不通的局面已经结束。休,完结。否,逆运。②其亡:顺利失去。其,代指上句的“吉”。亡,失去。③系于:相连。指根系与树干相连。④苞:《康熙字典》:“本也。”即草木的根系。⑤桑:桑树。⑥位正当也:所处的位置正符合所做的事。位,指九五爻,阳位阳爻,尊贵之象。正当,正应该担当。

  上九:倾否①,先否后喜②。
  象曰:否终则倾③,何可长也④?
  译文
  上九:逆境彻底过去。回想当初,凡事阻逆,从今往后,喜事遂心。
  象曰:不顺到极点,就没有所谓的不顺了。人之运势,怎么可能永久不顺呢?

  ①倾否:闭塞不通的局面全部没有了。倾,竭尽。②先否后喜:起初阻逆,后来欢喜。③否终则倾:不顺到极点,不顺就没有了。④何可长也:怎么会长久呢?
  辨析
  1.不顺到极点,一定会迎来顺利,所以,下一卦是《天火同人》。
  2.全则必缺,极则必反。大凡吉卦,最上一爻预示吉到了极点,爻辞往往凶险;大凡凶卦,最上一爻预示凶到了极点,爻辞往往吉利。

 

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