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《周易》第十一卦,地天泰

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【绪言】
  六十四卦第十一卦《地天泰》。六爻纳甲法属于坤宫第四卦,五行属土。
  上一卦是《水地比》,官民亲密无间,邻里互帮互助,从而天下安定,一派繁荣祥和的景象,因此,此卦为《地天泰》。
  《泰》卦,寓意畅通、流通、弘大、安定、太平、融合、收获、成功。
  卦象叙述方式:用茅草和大路,以及商朝的历史事件来诠释人的运气。
  世间万事万物不可能永远通达顺利。因此,下一卦是《天地否》。

地天泰.jpg

【卦辞】
  卦辞:泰,小往大来①,吉,亨。
  译文
  卦辞:泰卦,失去小的,得到大的,吉祥,亨通。
  ①小往大来:失去小的,换来大的。泰卦,上乾下坤,预示上大下小。易经所有卦象都是下升到上,上降到下,所以才说:“小往大来。”

  彖曰:泰,小往大来,吉亨,则是天地交①,而万物通②也。上下交③,而其志同④也。内阳而外阴,内健而外顺,内君子⑤而外小人⑥。君子道长⑦,小人道消⑧也。
  译文
  彖曰:泰卦,失去小的,得到大的,吉祥通达,原因是天气下降,地气上升,阴阳二炁相交,草木才能生长,事务才能畅通。之所以天地之气会相互流通,因为这是天地的法则。内卦属阳,外卦属阴,表示内卦刚正,外卦柔顺,又表示内卦为君子,外卦为百姓。大人物不断在发展,小人物不断在没落。

  ①天地交:天气下降,地气上升。指地气蒸发上升为云,天气凝聚下降为雨。②通:畅通,沟通、友好。又指植物生长。③上下交:同“天地交”,借指上下级沟通。④志同:志趣相投。借指原本的自然规律。⑤君子:既指帝王,又指有名望的人。⑥小人:既指普通人,又指不正派的人。⑦道长:思想和道路在发展。长,增长、发展。⑧道消:思想和道路在没落。消,减少、收缩。

  象曰:天地交,泰,后①以②财成③天地之道④,辅相⑤天地之宜⑥,以左右⑦民。
  译文
  象曰:天气下降,地气上升,阴阳二炁相交,称作泰卦。君王按照天地化育资财的规律,以便更好地顺应天地运行的法度,如此才能造福百姓和治理百姓。

  ①后:君王。《尔雅·释诂》:“后,君也。”②以,利用,按照。③财成,动词,收获财富。成,成全、促成。④道:规律。⑤辅相:辅佐。⑥宜:通“仪”,法度,标准。⑦左右:护佑,制约。
  辨析
  1.财成:很多人解释为“裁成”。裁成,研究取舍,做出决定的意思。财成与裁成,意思相近,但不相同。那么,为什么为“财”而不用“裁”呢?泰卦,本义就是天地相交,五谷丰登。人们所能够享受的资源,都源于天施地生,所以用“财成”。财,就是粮食。既有收获粮食的意思,又包含了裁定的含义。
  2.左右:在这里具有护佑和管理的双重含义。
  3.象辞的大意是:阴阳二炁相交,是泰卦。地上水蒸气上升,天上凝结降雨水,滋润土壤,粮食生长,因此才养活了人类。君王按照这个规律去教化天下百姓。

【爻辞】

白茅草.jpg

  初九:拔茅①,茹以其汇②。征③吉。
  象曰:拔茅征吉,志在外④也。
  译文
  初九:团结一心,就像在野地拔出来的茅草,它们的根系发达,紧紧地牵缠在一起。大家如果能这样团结,外出做事一定吉利。

  象曰:茅草根缠绕在一起,可以预示做事吉利,因为茅草根具有向四周延伸的特性。
  ①茅:茅草。②茹以其汇:缠绕在一起的都是它的根。茹,根茎缠绕。汇,同类相聚。③征:出发。④外:外面。这里指茅草根向四周扩展。
  辨析
  1.茅:指田间地头的茅草,其根茎发达,相互缠绕,而且生命力极强。用以象征团结。如图。
  2.征:很多人都解释为出征、征战,这不符合泰卦的本义。泰卦预示天下太平,全卦只有上六爻叙述了纣王灭亡的历史,其它爻全是在讲人与人的关系。所以,此爻是指出外做大事。

茅草根.jpg

  九二:包荒①。用冯河②,不遐遗③。朋④亡⑤,得尚于中行⑥。
  象曰:包荒,得尚于中行,以光大也。
  译文
  九二:胸怀宽广,包容天下。即使是徒步涉水,也不能忽略那些远方的人。立世为人,不拉帮结派,需要做到中规中矩。

  象曰:胸怀宽广,包容天下,为人立世中规中矩,才能大展宏图。
  ①包:包容。②荒:荒原,广阔,借指天下所有人。③冯河:徒步过河。冯,徒步涉水。《诗·小雅·小旻》:“不敢暴虎,不敢冯河。”③遐遗:忘记远方。遐,远。遗,漏掉、忘记。④朋:勾结同党。⑤亡:读wú,通“无”,不,没有。⑥得尚于中行:得益于中规中矩的风格。得,得益于、能够。尚,注重。

  九三:无平不陂①,无往不复②。艰贞无咎,勿恤其孚③,於食有福④。
  象曰:无往不复,天地际⑤也。
  译文
  九三:没有坦途就没有坡道,没有出门就谈不上回家。历经艰辛才会积累经验,不必产生忧患之心,将来会有福气的。
  象曰:没有去就没有回,就像天地运转一样无限循环。

  ①无平不陂:没有平坦的大路就没有坡道。陂,读bēi,山坡、坡道。②无往不复:没有一直向前而不返回的。③勿恤其孚:不要对信念产生怀疑。恤,忧患,顾虑。孚,信念。④於食有福:会获得福禄的。於,在于。食,收入、俸禄。《礼记·坊记》:“君子与其使食浮于人也,宁使人浮于食。”⑤际:交合、连接。《淮南子·原道》:“高不可际,深不可测。”

  六四:翩翩①不富以②其邻③,不戒以孚④。
  象曰:翩翩不富,皆失实也⑤。不戒以孚,中心愿也⑥。
  译文
  六四:心胸坦然,不炫耀自己的财富和能力,才能使得邻里信任,不再产生戒备心。
  象曰:不炫耀自己的财富和能力,这都属于没有说出自己的真实情况。邻里信任,不产生戒备心,这是内心的愿望。

  ①翩翩:小鸟自由飞翔的样子。比喻内心坦荡,不躁不傲。②以:在。③其邻:他的近邻。邻,近邻。④不戒以孚:没有戒心,所以相信。戒,戒备。孚,心,信任。⑤皆失实也:都是假话。⑥中心愿也:内心的希望。中,内。愿,希望。
  辨析
  1.远古的文辞,很难准确翻译其本义。

    针对此爻,各家解释不一,比如,(1)浮躁不会富裕,是因为他的邻居没有告诫他诚信的作用。(2)风流倜傥人富裕,把财富分散给邻居,所以得到了邻居的信任,不再对他有戒心。这两种解释,不符合人类社会的实际情况。第一,凡事都让邻居告诫,这不可能。自己做对做错,不在于邻居告诫。邻居没有或有一点点道德义务,但没有法理义务,邻居也不可能都是开明君子。做对做错,关键在于自己的修行。第二,富人不可能把财富都分给邻居。即使在今天,亿万富商比比皆是,未曾见过把他们钱财分散给大家。古有仗义疏财,但那种施舍也是有对象的,也是有目的的。比如及时雨宋江,有名的仗义疏财,但是,他不是把钱财随便给了邻居,而是给了他自己认为是豪杰的人,认为有必要结交的人。常言道:“人不为己天诛地灭。”
  远古文言虽然难懂,但卦象和爻象基本上已经确定了它的吉凶轮廓。譬如此卦,六爻全部阴阳对应,本义就是天地相交,万事亨通,所以,卦辞也不至于太凶。针对此爻,阴位阴爻,得正。并且与初九相呼应,本来就属吉象,怎能翻译成“不富裕”呢?
  2.翩翩:小鸟在空中飞来飞去。比喻内心坦荡,不躁不傲,没有私心杂念,既不会看不起民众,也不至于一味地巴结上峰。
  3.不富:不炫耀财富和才华。所谓富,是富有,充分的意思。钱多是富,才华满腹也是富。
  4.假设翻译成“把财富分散给邻居”,整个文句并没有“给予、赐予、分享”的意味。
  5.皆失实也:说的话做的事与自己的实际情况不符。文王和孔子所要表达的意思是:家财万贯,或是满腹经纶,一定会引起邻人们的嫉妒,由嫉生恨。所以,有钱不要炫耀,有才也不要显摆,大家才会尊重你,信任你,对你才没有戒备之心。细想想,人间本来就是这样!

  六五:帝乙①归妹②,以祉③元吉。
  象曰:以祉元吉,中以行愿也④。
  译文
  六五:商王帝乙嫁女联姻,以求天下太平,为民谋福,大吉。
  象曰:以求福祉,这是心中打算实施的愿望。

  ①帝乙:商朝第二十九代君主,定都朝歌。帝乙的儿子就是商纣王。②归妹:女儿出嫁。归,古代女子出嫁叫归。妹,女子。这里指帝乙的女儿。③以祉:以求福祉。祉,多指国家的福气。④中以行愿也:这是内心打算实施的愿望。中,内心。
  辨析
  1.有史以来,帝王嫁女儿,都要结合政治因素,所以,帝王不会把女儿嫁给普通老百姓,一定会嫁给重要的大臣,以此联姻交好,避免动乱,确保天下太平,所以说“以祉”,以求福祉。
  2.孔子说:“中以行愿也。”说明帝乙也是一位开明的君王。

  上六:城覆于隍①,勿用师②。自邑告命③,贞吝④。
  象曰:城覆于隍,其命乱也⑤。
  译文
  上六:护城河没有水,敌人直接越过,攻破城墙。别再动用武力了。因为从城内传来了帝王的诏令,和平解决。留下的只能是千古遗恨。
  象曰:敌人攻破城墙,这种祸乱是他天命本该如此。

  ①城覆于隍:城墙因为没有护城河而被攻破。城,城墙。古代没有城墙不算城。李白《送友人》:“青山横北郭,白水绕东城。”覆,倾覆、倒塌。于,因为,原因在于。隍,护城河没有水。②勿用师:别用兵了。勿,别。③自邑告命:从城里传来了帝王的诏令。邑,城内的权利机构。告命,帝王命令,指纣王的诏令。④贞吝:留下恨惜。吝,遗恨,耻辱。⑤其命乱也:天命该乱。命,本命、命运。乱,叛乱,祸乱。
  辨析
  1.泰卦全卦,只有此爻凶险,说明天下分久必合,合久必分。上六爻达到了极点,也就是商纣的灭亡之期。纣王沉湎酒色,拒谏饰非,疏于防范,以致护城河都断了水,敌人轻而易举越过护城河,攻入都城,商朝灭亡。孔子认为这是天命所使,非人力所能左右,因此下结论说:“其命乱也。”
  为什么此爻暗指纣王呢?因为六五爻说的是帝乙出嫁女儿。帝乙是纣王的父亲。所以,最后一爻就是指纣王的灭亡。这是商朝末期的一段历史。
  2.另外,下一卦《天地否》,天地不通,运气不顺。所以,泰卦上六爻达到了极点,即将进入《天地否》,所以不吉。至于帝乙和纣王,那只是借用历史来说明问题。
  3.如老子所说:“福兮祸所伏,祸兮福所倚。”天下没有绝对的吉利,也没有绝对的凶险。

 

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