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《周易》第十卦,天泽履

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   【绪言】
  六十四卦第十卦,是《天泽履》。六爻纳甲法是艮宫第六卦,属土。
  第九卦是《风天小畜》,经济繁荣,人们逐渐富了起来。积蓄一定的财富,人就有能力,有能力就有胆量。同时,财富也能让人变得开明知礼,因此,此卦为《天泽履》。
  《履》卦,寓意魄力、胆大、试险、尝试、外出、礼仪、修养。
  卦象叙述方式:用脚步和老虎作比喻。
  道路是我们自己走出来的,历经平坦和坎坷,积累下丰富的经验,面前就是通天大道。因此,下一卦是《地天泰》。

  【卦辞】
  卦辞:履①虎尾,不咥②人,亨。
  译文
  卦辞:踩到了老虎的尾巴,老虎却不咬人,预示亨通。

  ①履:踩。②咥:咬。

  彖曰:履,柔履刚也①,说而应乎乾②,是以履虎尾,不咥人,亨。刚中正,履帝位而不疚③,光明也。
  译文
  彖曰:履卦,柔弱之人试走刚强之路,但要面带喜悦去拜见上层人物,如此,即使轻轻地踩到了老虎的尾巴,老虎也不至于咬人,亨通。处于刚正适中的位置,担任君王是没有坏处的,因为这是正义而又伟大的事情。

  ①柔履刚也:柔弱试走刚强之路。②说而应乎乾:面带喜悦去应合刚强。说,通“悦”,《诗·召南·草虫》:“我心则说。”应,顺应,应和。《国语·晋语》:“龟往离散以应我。”③不疚:不用忧虑。疚,忧虑。
  辨析
  1.柔履刚也:履卦,下卦为兑为阴,上卦为乾为阳。阴为柔,阳为刚,阴柔试险阳刚。另外,全卦只有六三是阴爻,其它都是阳爻。所以,也可以把阴柔看作是六三爻。
  2.说而应乎乾:履卦,下卦为兑为喜悦,上卦为乾为大人。面带喜悦去觐见大人。
  3.刚中正:指九五爻,阳爻居阳位,又是上卦的中爻,帝王之象。
  4.疚:因穷而久病。比喻忧患,坏处。例如弊病、病句、政病,其喻类似。

  象曰:上天下泽,履。君子以辨上下,安①民志②。
  译文
  象曰:上卦为乾为天,升而在上;下卦为兑为泽,润而在下。提示人们,走在沼泽之上,一不留心就会陷下去,所以称作履卦。大人物要辨别上下,分清尊卑,做到等级分明,才能稳定老百姓的思想,遵循礼仪而行。

  ①安:安定、稳定、安抚。②民志:人心。
  辨析
  象辞大意是,做人要有自知之明,自己是什么人就去做什么事。如果不是大人物,即使有非分之想,不但做不成,甚至还会深陷泥潭。相反,本是大人物的命,即使不做大人物也不成。

天泽履.jpg

  【爻辞】
  初九:素履①,往,无咎。
  象曰:素履之往,独行愿也②。
  译文
  初九:穿着布鞋,前去做事,没有错。
  象曰:穿着布鞋,前去做事,独自去实现自己的愿望。

  履:布鞋。素,朴素,不鲜艳。象征本分。②独行愿也:自己选择自己愿望。独,单独。行,行动。愿,希望,质朴。
  辨析
  大意是,不随世俗,自己走自己的路,让别人说去吧。

  九二:履道坦坦①,幽人②贞吉。
  象曰:幽人贞吉,中不自乱也。
  译文
  九二:面前的路宽阔而又平坦,女人坚守贞洁,吉祥。
  象曰:女人坚守妇道吉祥,因为她们没有非分之念。

  ①坦坦:宽阔平坦。《广雅》:“坦坦,平也。”②幽人:阴人,指妇女。
  辨析

  1.幽人贞吉:妇女坚守妇道,才会吉祥。兑卦为少女。幽,是阴性、清净的意思,因此,幽人指妇女,而不是孔颖达所说的“隐士”。

  2.此爻相比上一爻的“素履”,身份又上升一步。

  六三:眇①能视,跛②能履③,履虎尾,咥人凶。武人④为于⑤大君⑥。
  象曰:眇能视,不足以有明也。跛能履,不足以与行也。咥人之凶,位不当也。武人为于大君,志刚也。
  译文
  六三:独眼看不清还能看见,瘸子走不快还能走,不留心踩到老虎尾巴,老虎一定要咬人。如同武将为帝王效力,时刻要谨慎。
  象曰:独眼看不清也能看见,毕竟不能完全看清。瘸子走不快也能走,毕竟不如常人行走。老虎咬人带来的凶险,是因为自己所处的位置危险。武将为帝王效力,是自己的心志刚强。

  ①眇:独眼。②跛:读bǒ,瘸子。③履:走。④武人:武将,掌握军权的人。⑤为于:服务于某人。⑥大君:帝王。
  辨析
  1.这里用“独眼”和“瘸子”来比喻拥兵自重的武将。虽然执掌军权威震一方,但是,武将行事鲁莽,会使君王惴惴不安,时刻提防你。查看历史,多少武将因此而剥权丧命!所以,镇守边疆的大将,不要被表面形势所蒙蔽,执行君令也不可拖拖拉拉,政令不通,老虎一定要吃人。真应了那句话:“伴君如伴虎”。“伴君如伴虎”一词,可能就是缘于此吧。
  2.武人为于大君:不能解释为“武将当上了国君”,而是“武将替君王效力”。为于:服务于。为,帮助、替。

  九四:履虎尾,愬愬①,终吉。
  象曰:愬愬终吉,志行②也。
  译文
  九四:踩到了老虎的尾巴,大吃一惊,但最终还是吉利的。
  象曰:大惊失色,但最终吉利,原因在于自己志在必行。

  ①愬愬:惊恐的样子。愬,读硕,朔心,隐藏的心。指惊恐。②志行:志在必行。

  九五:夬①履,贞厉②。
  象曰:夬履贞厉,位正当也。
  译文
  九五:极速前进,磨破了鞋子,把这种勇武的风格坚持下去。
  象曰:极速前进,磨破了鞋子,把这种勇武的风格坚持下去。原因在于自己所处的位置恰当。

  ①夬:破裂。②贞厉:把这种勇武的风格坚持下去。贞,坚持。厉,危险,勇武,强势。

  上九:视履①,考祥②其旋③,元吉。
  象曰:元吉在上④,大有庆⑤也。
  译文
  上九:看看走过的路,反复考证一下所有事务的吉凶苗头,大吉。
  象曰:能获得大吉是那些履历丰富的人,他们的福德值得称赞。

  ①视履:查看脚上的鞋。比喻看看走过的路。②考祥:验证一下吉凶征兆。考,验证,探究。祥,吉凶征兆。③旋,重复转圈,比喻重复、反复。④大吉在上:能获得大吉是那些履历丰富的人。上,指九六爻。⑤大有庆:贤达人士具有值得称赞的福分。大,年龄和资历在上的人。庆,福分。
  辨析
  1.元吉在上:大吉大吉属于那些经验丰富的人。上,指九六爻。最上爻本来物极必反,但是,下一卦就是《地天泰》,天地相通,大吉之象。所以,进入最上爻后,即将进入《地天泰》,所以说:“元吉在上。”
  2.大有庆也:不能简单解释为“很值得庆贺”。这里的“大”,指年长之人,履历丰富。也可以解为大人,或君子。

 

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