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《周易》第九卦,风天小畜

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【绪言】 

  六十四卦第九卦,是《风天小畜》。六爻纳甲法是巽宫第二卦,属木。

  第八卦是《水地比》,用鲜血换来了和平。天下太平,经济繁荣,老百姓逐渐富了起来,银行也有了一部分储蓄,因此,此卦为《风天小畜》。

  《蓄》卦,寓意积蓄、小富、利润、收获、顺应。

  卦象叙述方式:借降雨诠释时运、用手拉手描述了人与人互助的情景,以及用车圈和辐条来比喻团结。

  贫穷人安分,饱暖生恶欲,因此,下一卦是《天泽履》,要铤而走险了。

   【卦辞】

  卦辞:小畜,亨①。密云不雨②,自我西郊③。
  译文
  卦辞:小蓄卦,小有积蓄,顺利。岐周城西部上空乌云密布,但没有下雨。

  ①亨:顺利、通达。②密云不雨:乌云密布不下雨。③自我西郊:在城西郊上空。自,在,处于;我,指岐周城。
  辨析
  自我西郊,不能解释为“从我的西郊而来”,而是“在我西郊上空”。因为下文提示说:“尚往也。”本卦上巽下乾,风在天上刮,是风把云吹向了其它地方。至于在其它地方是否降雨,那是另一个话题。

  彖曰:小畜,柔得位①,而上下应之②,曰小畜。健而巽③,刚中而志行④,乃亨⑤。密云不雨,尚往也⑥。自我西郊,施未行也⑦。
  译文
  彖曰:小蓄卦,温顺的人,恰好处于温顺的位置,因而,上级和下级都能与他很好地合作,所以称作小蓄。卦象外柔内刚,具备这种刚正适中的心性,就能励志前行,所以顺利。乌云密布不下雨,是乌云飘向了远方。在城西郊上空,那是因为阴阳不交。

  ①柔得位:本来就适合温顺的性情。②而上下应之:因为上级和下级都能顺应他。③健而巽:内心刚正,但外表谦逊。④刚中而志行:刚正而又中庸,励志前行。志行,内心决定行动。⑤乃亨:所以通达。乃,于是,所以。⑥尚往也:去往远处了。尚,注重,远处。往,去。⑦施未行也:没有进行真正的交合。指冷热气流没有交会。详见辨析。
  辨析
  1.柔得位:柔,温顺。六四爻,阴爻阴位,阴爻为柔顺,所以,叫柔得位。
  2.而上下应之:而,所以、因而。上下,小蓄卦只有六四爻是阴爻,其它五爻都是阳爻。五阳爻都想应和六四阴爻,所以说:“上下应之。”
  3.健而巽:小畜下卦为乾,为内在,为刚正;上卦为巽,为外表,为谦逊。正是外柔内刚。
  4.刚中而志行:九二爻是阳爻,居下卦中爻;九五爻也是阳爻,居上卦中爻,所以说“刚中”。阳性主动,所以说:“志行”。
  5.施未行也:施,交合,阳性主动施加给阴性,叫施。《益卦》:“天施地生”。行,流动、流通。《周易·乾卦》:“云行雨施。”大意是,冷气流和热气流能量都小,没有真正相遇(交会),所以下不了雨。

  象曰:风行天上①,小畜。君子以懿文德②。
  译文
  象曰:天上刮风,是小蓄的卦形。大人物看到风向,就明白要用高尚的品德去提升自己的修养和功业。

  ①风行天上:天上刮风。下卦为乾卦,为天;上卦为巽卦,为风,为上。②以懿文德:用高尚的品德去提升自己的修养和功业。懿,美化,用美好的作风去修炼。
  我们常说的“作风”一词,可能就来源于此。

风天小畜.jpg

  爻辞】
  初九:复其道①,何其咎?②吉。
  象曰:复其道,其义③吉也。
  译文
  初九:返回自己本来就正确的道路上,这有什么错?吉利。
  象曰:走自己的老路,他的做法是吉利的。

  ①复其道:返回自己本来就正确的做法。复,返回。道,正确的行为。②何其咎:有什么错。初九阳爻居阳位,得正,又有六四阴爻呼应,所以说没有错。③义:举动,做法。

  九二:牵复①,吉。
  象曰:牵复在中②,亦不自失也③。
  译文
  九二:拉着朋友的手,返回本来就正确的道路上,吉利。
  象曰:拉着朋友返回中正之地,没有失去自己的作用。

  ①牵复:拉着朋友返回本来就正确的道路。②在中:中正的位置。指下卦中爻。③亦不自失也:也没有丧失自己本来应该做的。
  辨析
  1.小蓄卦,上巽下乾。乾为天,天本在上,但此卦却在下。因此,一、二爻“复其道”,不断上升。上升到自己的位置,自然吉利。
  2.牵复:其含义是,不能让别人在错误的道路上越走越远,及时伸手,把他拉回正轨,从而走向正确的道路。具有指引方向的意思。

  九三:舆说辐①。夫妻反目。
  象曰:夫妻反目,不能正室②也。
  译文
  九三:运输途中,车轮的辐条脱落下来。这象征夫妻反目,心思不往一处想,劲不往一处使。

  象曰:夫妻之所以反目,因为她本身就不是自己的人。
  ①舆说辐:车辆的辐条脱落下来。舆,车辆,运输途中。说,通“脱”,脱落。《荀子·乐论》:“说履,开坐,修爵无数。”辐,辐条,支撑轮圈的细木条。②正室:使她成为自己的人。正,动词,使之正确。
  辨析
  1.舆说辐:车轮内所有辐条都集中在轮毂上,象征心往一处想,劲往一处使。如果所有辐条都脱落,车轮也就失去了车轮的作用。如下图。
  2.不能正室:九三阳爻为夫在内卦,六四阴爻为妻在外卦。妻乘夫在上,夫被制在下,所以说:“不能正室。”

舆说輹.jpg

  六四:有孚,血去惕出①,无咎。
  象曰:有孚惕出,上合志也②。
  译文
  六四:心怀诚信,就不用再担忧和恐惧,没有危险。
  象曰:心怀诚信,就不用再担忧和恐惧,因为这符合上级的意愿(对九五要忠心耿耿)。

  ①血去惕出:具有诚信,就不用再担忧和恐惧。血,担忧。去,消除。惕,戒惧。②上合志也:符合上级的意愿。上,指九五爻。

  九五:有孚挛如①,富以其邻。
  象曰:有孚挛如,不独富也。
  译文
  九五:心连心,手拉手,不但自己富裕,还要带着大家都富起来。
  象曰:心连心,手拉手,原因是心系大家,不只是自己过上好日子。

  ①挛如:手拉手。挛,挽着胳膊,拉着手,寓意牵挂。

  上九:既雨①既处②,尚德载③。妇贞④厉⑤,月几望⑥,君子征,凶。
  象曰:既雨既处,德积载也。君子征凶,有所疑也⑦。
  译文
  上九:天降雨水,汇聚在一起,大地厚德,承载着河流和湖泊。女人的心性越来越厉害,就像月亮将要达到最亮最圆那样。此时,阴盛阳衰,男人出征,一定凶险。
  象曰:天降雨水,汇聚在一起,是大地具有积蓄和承载的功德。男人出征,一定凶险,那是因为自己有些担心害怕。

  ①既雨:已经下雨。既,已经。《论语·先进》:“春服既成。”②既处:全部积蓄起来。既,全部。《左传·僖公二十二年》:“及其未既济也。”处,停蓄,汇聚。《广韵》:“留也,息也,定也。”③尚德载:崇尚承载的品德。尚,尊崇。载,担负、承载。④妇贞:妇德,女人的德性。⑤厉:猛烈,严厉。《论语·述而》:“子温而厉。”⑥月几望:月亮将要达到望日。几,接近,即将。望,农历十五前后,月亮大而明。⑦有所疑也:有些害怕。疑,恐惧。《礼记·杂记下》:“皆为疑死。”
  辨析
  1.既雨既处:本卦开始“密云不雨”,现在到了最上爻,所以,天降雨了。一直没有下雨,一旦下雨,就会积蓄到田野中,滋润土壤。所以,处,是积蓄,被土壤吸收的意思。
  2.妇贞厉:九六阳爻居阴位,位不正,并且,又处于最上爻。所以,阴性变得刚猛,说明女性不再是那种温柔的性情。

  3.月几望:月亮本属阴。十五的月亮,最亮最圆,用来比喻女性的性情,说明已经达到了非常严重的地步。这是阴盛阳衰的体现。

  4.此时正是女性狂盛的时候,不利于男性有所行动,所以才说:“君子征,凶。”

  5.从这一点看:每逢农历十五前后(十四、十五、十六、十七),月亮最大、最圆、最亮,女人性情亢奋,心绪不稳定。作为男人,这几天尽量让着她们。

 

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