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《周易》第八卦,水地比

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   【绪言】
六十四卦第八卦,是《水地比》。六爻纳甲法是坤宫第八卦,属土。
第七卦是《地水师》,因矛盾而引发的战争。《地水师》颠倒过来,便是《水地比》。战争是残酷的,用鲜血扑灭了野心。于是,和平来到了。 
《比》卦,寓意和平、和睦、亲密、拥护、辅助、并列、亲附、归顺。只有和平发展,才能繁荣经济,积蓄财富。因此,下一卦是《风天小畜》。

    卦象叙述方式:阐释人心向背,以及朋友结交。

   

   【卦辞】

  卦辞:比①,吉。原筮②,元永贞③,无咎。不宁方来④,后夫凶⑤。
译文
卦辞:比卦是和谐繁荣的象征,吉利。占卜初心就是求得吉祥,卦象大吉,把这种纯正吉祥永远地持续下去,才不会犯下任何错误。有些诸侯国看着眼红,也要前来投靠。然而,将来这些诸侯国必成隐患。

①比:和睦。②原筮:占卜的本来想法(就是求得吉祥)。原,原本。筮,古代用蓍草占卦。③元永贞:把这种大吉的状态坚持下去。元,大吉。永,持久。贞,坚持下去。④不宁方来:不甘心的诸侯国前来。宁,安宁,静心。方,四方。寓意诸侯国。⑤后夫凶:将来这些诸侯国必成隐患。后,将来。夫,这些。

  彖曰:比,吉也。比,辅①也。下顺从也②。原筮元永贞,无咎,以刚中也③。不宁方来,上下应也④。
译文
彖曰:比卦,是吉祥。比卦,是亲辅。所以,老百姓都想去投靠。卦象大吉,永远持续下去,没有失误,是因为刚正公平。诸侯国不甘心也前来投靠,是因为他们看到了朝廷体恤百姓,百姓拥护朝廷,天下纷纷归顺。

①辅:依附,投靠。②下顺从也:老百姓、诸侯国、藩王都来顺从。下,指下卦。下卦为坤卦,为顺从。③以刚中也:因为刚正公平。指上卦九五爻,阳爻阳位。④上下应也:朝廷体恤百姓,百姓拥护朝廷。上指九五爻,下指六二爻,一阴一阳,彼此呼应。

  象曰:地上有水,比。先王以建万国①,亲诸侯。
译文
象曰:地上有水,是比卦,水润大地,喻示亲附。周朝建立后,为了有效统治天下,先王封邦建国,共享君王之福。

    ①万国:周朝天子为天下共主,在自己的统辖下所建立的各个诸侯国。

水地比.jpg

  爻辞】
初六:有孚①比之②,无咎。有孚盈缶③,终来,有它④吉。
象曰:比之初六,有它吉也⑤。
译文
初六:真心真意前来投靠,没有错。他们抬着满罐子美酒,毕竟是前来投靠,即使有其它想法也是吉利的。
象曰:比卦初爻,位居最下,说明他们势力最弱,所以,他们即使有什么想法,大局仍然是吉利的。

①有孚:心怀诚意。有,心存。②比之:他们前来投靠。比,动词,接近,投靠。③盈缶:罐子盛满美酒。盈,装满。缶,装酒的瓦罐。④终来:毕竟他们前来投靠。终,毕竟,终究。⑤有它:有其它想法。它,意外,人们不喜见的。《玉篇·它部》:“它,蛇也。”,蛇,人们不喜欢。

  六二:比之自内①,贞吉。
象曰:比之自内,不自失②也。
译文
六二:友爱来自于心田,纯正而又吉祥。
象曰:友爱来自于心田,那是因为自己没有丧失最基本的做人准则。

①自内:来自内心。内,内心。《资治通鉴》:“内怀犹豫之计。”②自失:自己失掉自己的身份。也可以解释为,自己犯错误。

  六三:比之匪人①。
象曰:比之匪人,不亦伤乎?
译文
六三:结交那些心术不正的人。
象曰:结交那些心术不正的人,怎能不受到伤害呢?

①匪人:不算人的人。指行为不正的人。

  六四:外比之①,贞吉。
象曰:外比於贤②,以从上也③。
译文
六四:与外域建立伙伴关系,保持下去吉利。
象曰:结交域外的贤达之士,是为了执行帝王的旨意。

①外比之:与外国建交。外,外国,周边的。指不是周王的统治下的自主国家。②外比於贤:结交域外的贤达之士。贤,道德高尚的人。③以从上也:是为了执行帝王的旨意。从,跟随、执行。本义是,为了维护君王的统治地位。

    辨析

    一、二、三爻讲的是国内关系,老百姓与周王亲近,诸侯国与周王亲近。以及邻里之间如何做到亲近。此爻上升一步,讲的是国际关系,与周边国家建交。

  九五:显比①。王用三驱②,失前禽③,邑人不诫④,吉。
象曰:显比之吉,位正中也⑤。舍逆取顺⑥,失前禽也。邑人不诫,上使中也⑦。
译文
九五:传扬亲善的社会氛围。比如,帝王前去狩猎,卫队从三面驱赶野兽,跑在前方的猎物逃脱了。村民看到了逃脱的野兽也不吭声,一派祥和的氛围。
象曰:传扬亲善是吉利的做法,原因是自己的位置尊贵。抓捕猎物,顺其自然,所以才会失去前面的野兽;百姓不告诉君王,是因为君王仁爱治国,不拘小节。

①显比:传扬和谐友爱。显,发扬、传扬、公开、显示。②王用三驱:帝王带着卫队,利用三面驱赶的方法。三驱,三面驱赶。③失前禽:有几只野兽从正前方跑了。禽,禽兽总称。④邑人不诫:当地老百姓也不说一声。诫,提醒、警示。⑤位正中也:所处的位置尊贵。正中,指九五之尊。⑥舍逆取顺:放弃那些逃走的,捕获那些顺手的。寓意顺其自然。⑦上使中也:君王奉行仁政。上。指九二爻。使,做法,指政策。中,九二爻在上卦的中爻,阳爻阳位,尊贵之位,寓意仁政。

    辨析

    此爻讲述周王仁政天下,故意用实际行动向社会宣扬和谐友爱的社会氛围。所以,本爻以周王狩猎为例,进一步说明周王平易近人,和老百姓融为一体,不分贵贱。

  上六:比之无首①,凶。
象曰:比之无首,无所终也②。
译文
上六:交不到真正的朋友,危险。
象曰:没有靠得住的朋友,人生稀里糊涂,不知所终。

①无首:没有头绪。意思是,不知道结交哪些朋友。即交友不慎,遇人不淑。②无所终也:没有准确的方向。即不知所终。终,最后抉择。

 

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