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《周易》第六卦,天水讼

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   【绪言】
  六十四卦第六卦,是《天水讼》。六爻纳甲法是离宫第七卦,属火

  第五卦是《水天需》,寓意人生在世,需要物质资养。《水天需》颠倒过来,便是《天水讼》。为了更好地生活下去,每个人都需要更多的物质,因此,大家在竞争中难免会遇到纠纷,引起争讼。

  《讼》卦,寓意矛盾、分歧、纠纷、诉讼、争取、争辩、谈判、调解、仇怨、敌视。此卦,是武力解决的前夜。判决恰当,纠纷止息。处理不当,必然引起肢体冲突。

    卦象叙述方式:矛盾纠纷引发的诉讼过程。

    【卦辞】

  卦辞:有孚①窒②。惕中③吉,终凶④。利见大人⑤,不利涉大川⑥。
  译文
  卦辞:别人不守信用,说话不算,那就要小心谨慎,做事稳妥,暂时才会没事。但纠纷终究还会发生。所以,应该上报给政府,不应该自己大马金刀的干。

  ①有孚:得到别人的信用兑现。有,得到,回报。孚,信用。②窒:阻塞,指内心不愿意做某事。③惕中:小心谨慎,中规中矩。惕,戒惧。中,中庸。④终凶:最终也不吉利。寓意还要爆发。⑤利见大人:适合政府出面。见,出现。大人,指政府相关部门,或有威望的人。⑥涉大川:过大河。这里比喻把事情闹大。

  彖曰:讼,上刚下险①,险而健②,讼。讼有孚窒,惕中吉,刚来而得中也③。终凶,讼不可成也④。利见大人,尚中正也⑤。不利涉大川,入于渊也⑥。
  译文
  彖曰:讼卦,上卦是乾卦,喻义刚正;下卦是坎卦,喻义阴险。阴诈遇到刚正,一定会引发冲突,所以,讼卦代表纠纷。别人食言不守信,首先自己要中规中矩,不可大意,如此才会一时平安,原因在于自己行得正,坐得端,邪恶一时也没有办法。终究不吉利,原因在于仇怨并没有从根本上化解。适合把事情上报给政府,那是诉诸于法律,追求正义。不要把事情闹大,原因在于你已经跳入了矛盾的漩涡中。

  ①上刚下险:上卦为乾,为刚毅。下卦为坎,为阴险。②险而健:阴诈之人遇到刚强之人。而,连词,表示相承,到。③刚来而得中也:刚强之人做事并没有过激。刚来,出现刚强之人,指乾卦。得中,做的不偏不倚。指九二爻。④讼不可成也:争讼没有结果。⑤尚中正也:注重端正。尚,注重、追求。⑥入于渊也:跳进了深渊。渊,漩涡,比喻纠纷和麻烦。

  象曰:天与水违行①,讼。君子以作事谋始②。
  译文
  象曰:天气升而不降,水炁降而不升,这叫分而不合,所以,称作讼卦,寓意分歧。所以,凡人做事,都要事先谋划,做到胸有成竹。

  ①违行:背道而行。违,背离。②谋始:开始就要慎重考虑。谋,计划。始,起初。
  辨析
  水炁蒸腾,天气下降,一上一下,交合氤氲,方能化为云雨,调节气温,滋润大地。如果水炁降而不升,天气升而不降,相互分离,这就是“天与水违行”。
  也有解释:天向西旋,水朝东流,是背道而驰。中国总地势西高东低,所以水向东流。但也有例外,比如额尔齐斯河,向北流入北冰洋。雅鲁藏布江,向南流入印度洋。再说,周易没有国界,她是阐释大自然的,这种解释,外域说不通。

天水讼.jpg

  爻辞】
  初六:不永所事①,小有言②,终吉。
  象曰:不永所事,讼不可长也③。虽有小言④,其辩明也⑤。
  译文
  初六:不要长久地纠缠在事务之中,虽然有些不明事理的人七言八语,但最终还是吉祥的。
  象曰:不要长久地纠缠在事务之中,因为冤家宜解不宜结。虽然有些闲言碎语,最好还是向他们解释清楚。

  ①不永所事:不要长久纠缠事务。永,长久。所事,处于事务纠缠。②小有言:糊涂人的闲言碎语。③讼不可长也:矛盾不能长久地积累下去。讼,矛盾、怨气。④小言:说话不在理。小,低微之人。言,谤言、议论。⑤其辩明也:其原因在于解释清楚。辩明,辩论明白。
  辨析
  “小言”与“小有言”略有不同。小言,指邻里的闲言碎语。小有言,指不开化的山野村民的诽谤之词。语气重于“小言”。孔子认为,《讼》卦初爻是起初,虽有纠纷,但并不严重。所以只说“小言”,而不说“小有言”。

  九二:不克讼①,归而逋②。其邑人③三百户,无眚④。
  象曰:不克讼,归而逋窜⑤也。自下讼上⑥,患至掇也⑦。
  译文
  九二:打官司败诉。判决下来之后,拖着不执行,并出逃在外,另寻新居。新环境只有三百多户,在这里不会出现什么灾祸。
  象曰:打官司败诉,看到结果就逃跑藏了起来。下级告上级,是政府没有处理好,埋下的祸患。

  ①不克讼:不能胜诉。克,战胜。②归而逋:判决下来就出逃了。归,结果。逋,逃脱,有逃跑推拖的意思。③邑人:同乡人。④无眚:没有灾祸。眚,灾祸。⑤逋窜:逃跑躲起来。逋,逃跑。窜,藏匿。⑥自下讼上:九二爻为阳爻,对应九五爻也是阳爻。但是,九二在下,为老百姓;九五在上,为政府。因此,预示老百姓告政府。⑦患至掇也:拾取祸患,指自己埋下的祸患。患。祸患。掇,拾取。
  辨析
  九二爻是下卦唯一的阳爻,寓意实力大,有号召力,具有带领众人告状的含义。自下讼上,说明是老百姓告政府。虽然他告不赢,但在社会中埋下了隐患。

  六三:食旧德①,贞厉②,终吉。或③从王事,无成④。
  象曰:食旧德,从上吉也⑤。
  译文
  六三:逃到新的地方安居,要坚守先人的品德,始终保持戒燥戒傲的处事态度,最终还是吉祥的。在当地,也有人想进入政府工作,却都没有办成。
  象曰:坚守先人的品德,意思是依照上辈人的做法才吉利。

  ①食旧德:坚守世德。食,吃,比喻依靠,享受。旧德,先人的品德,往日的威信。②贞厉:保持警惕。③或:有的人。④无成:没有成功。⑤从上吉也:按照老辈人的做法吉利。从,依照。上,尊长。

  九四:不克讼,复即命①。渝安②,贞吉。
  象曰:复即命,渝安贞,不失也。
  译文
  九四:不能胜诉,再一次听从命运的安排吧。变得安安分分,保持纯正才会吉祥。
  象曰:听从命运的安排,变得安安分分,保持纯正,才不会出现什么过失。

  ①复即命:恢复以往的生活状态。复,返回,恢复。即,投入,到。命,生活、命运。②渝安:变得安分。渝,改变。

  九五:讼,元吉。
  象曰:讼元吉,以中正也。
  译文
  九五:据理诉讼,大吉。
  象曰:据理诉讼,大吉,原因在于行得正坐得端,不偏不倚。

  上九:或锡之①鞶带②,终朝③三褫之④。
  象曰:以讼⑤受服⑥,亦不足敬也。
  译文
  上九:也可能赐给官职,穿上官服。然而,一天之内贬了再用,用了再贬。
  象曰:用强词夺理的办法得到官职,也没什么可值得尊敬的。

  ①或锡之:可能赏赐给他。或,可能。锡,赏赐。②鞶带:官员腰间的皮带,代指官职。鞶,读盘,皮质腰带。③终朝:天黑了,指一天之内。这里是夸张的说法。终,末了、结束。朝,日。④三褫之:又被多次剥夺。三,多次、屡次。褫,读耻,剥夺、脱下。⑤讼:这里指强词夺理。⑥受服:指受爵禄与服饰之赏。代指服从领导,接受官职。
  辨析
  上九爻,阴位阳爻,又位于全卦最上方,寓意胆识过人,能言善辩,善于揭露统治阶级的弊端。作为统治者,遇到这样的人,最好是安抚他们,哄着用着。真没办法,就赏给他一个职位。然而,给他职位也不是情愿的,所以,过不了多久就会被撤职。撤职再闹,再赏赐再撤职,这就是“终朝三褫之”。这里的终朝,是夸张的笔法,绝不是一天之内用三回撤三回。终朝,形容时间短。
  无论伶牙俐齿,还是胆大敢为,此卦都是在语言争论下进行的。如果用争论方式(诉讼)解决不了问题,下一卦将动用武力解决,即《地水师》。

 

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