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《周易》第五卦,水天需

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   【绪言】
  六十四卦第五卦,是《水天需》。六爻纳甲法是坤宫第七卦,属土。
  第四卦是《山水蒙》,寓意年幼无知,懵懂求学的阶段。一个成长中的儿童,需要投入大量的精力和物力,来资养他长大成人,于是,此卦就是《水天需》。
  《需》卦,寓意嗷嗷待哺、资养、等待、期待、需要、渴望、努力、进取。

    卦象叙述方式:获得物质有一个过程,利用河流远近来做比喻。

  【卦辞】

    卦辞:需,有孚①,光亨②,贞吉③。利涉大川④。
  译文
  卦辞:需卦,诚实守信,兑现承诺,这样才能发扬光大,万事亨通,坚持下去顺利吉祥。有利于开创伟大的事业。

  ①有孚:得到了(别人的)信用。指如期得到了兑现。有,取得。孚,原意禽类孵化。鸟孵蛋卵,如期必至,故为守信。②光亨:让运气更加通达顺利。光,大、远,使之更加。③贞吉:把这种纯正的作风持续下去吉祥。贞,持续纯贞。④利涉大川:有利于渡过大江大河。涉大川,比喻开创伟大的事业。
  辨析
  有孚,不是仅仅的守信用。而是因为别人守信用而得到了利益的意思。
  需卦,正是需要得到资养。雌鸟外出觅食,短时间内一定飞回喂食喳喳待哺的幼鸟,这是幼鸟如期得到了雌鸟的兑现;公司急需用资金,银行按照约定的日期及时放款,这是公司如期得到了银行的兑现。如期得到了兑现,幼鸟逐渐长大,公司运作正常,如此,万事亨通,吉祥如意。将来,小鸟才能展翅腾飞,公司才能兴旺发达业。这就是“有孚,光亨,涉大川。”

  彖曰:需,须①也。险在前也②。刚健③而不陷④,其义⑤不困穷矣⑥。需有孚,光亨,贞吉。位乎⑦天位⑧,以正中也⑨。利涉大川,往有功也⑩。
  译文
  彖曰:需卦,是等待资养的意思。为了得到所需的物质,向前一定会面临艰难和险阻。然而,意志坚强,气概豪迈,就能克服重重困难。具备这种精神,艰难阻止不了前进的步伐,生活不会面临贫穷。需卦寓意得到了信用的兑现,才能光大亨通,坚持下去就会吉祥,原因是自己处于自己应该去做的位置,因为这是天经地义的。能够开创伟大的事业,是因为努力奋斗一定会建立丰功伟绩。

  ①须:等待资养。②险在前也:向前面临艰险。险,上卦是坎卦,代表前面,代表艰险。前,人活在世,无论男女老幼,勤劳懒惰,都在向前走。③刚健:坚强的意志,豪迈的气概。④不陷:不会遭遇困难。陷,陷阱,比喻艰险和困阻。⑤其义:这种的做法。义,人性之根本。⑥不困穷矣:不会穷困了。⑦位:处于,指某种状态。⑧天位:处于上天应该做的位置。天,本应该要做的大事。下卦是乾,乾代表天,因此说天位。⑨正中:不偏不倚,适合的。意为天经地义。⑩往有功也:前去谋求会有功绩。往,去谋求。有,获得,收获。

  象曰:云上於天①,需。君子②以饮食宴乐。
  译文:乌云密布,天降甘霖,是需卦。此时,正是人们休息的时候,适合宴饮作乐。
  ①云上於天:天上有云。上卦为坎,坎代表云,代表雨。②君子:达官贵族,有名望的人。
  辨析
  君子一词,广见于远古典籍。“君”,从尹,从口。“尹”,表示治理、掌权;“口”,表示发布命令。合起来就是:发号施令,治理国家。所以,君子指达官贵族。
  孔子此人,满腹经纶,一辈子却怀才不遇,官场失意,而他梦寐以求的就是进朝做官当君子,能以飞黄腾达,光宗耀祖。所以,在他的大脑里,充满了贵贱等级之分。他指出,在礼仪的束缚下,贫者安贫,富者安富,保持中庸,社会稳定。这种思想,本义是在帮助统治阶级巩固政权,是对黎民百姓的无情压迫。对朝廷百般趋附,献计献策,最后也无非是私塾一个。
  年代不同,对孔子的评价也不同。所以在今天,孔子思想才能唱红大江南北。
  本卦就是孔子思想的真实流露,他认为,外面天降大雨,当官的可以放假休息,花天酒地,老百姓却没有这个资格,依然要冒雨劳作。所以他才把:“以饮食宴乐”的主语定为“君子”。很明显,贫贱之人就没有资格休息宴乐。
  假若孔子的原意不是这样,那就应该写作:“云上於天,需。以饮食宴乐。”省却主语才对。

水天需.jpg

  爻辞】
  初九:需于郊①,利用恒②,无咎③。
  象曰:需于郊,不犯难行也④。利用恒,无咎,未失常⑤也。
  译文
  初九:时机尚不成熟,就像在远郊等待一样,凭借以往的经验,安下心来,才不会出现什么危险。
  象曰:安心等待,是因为时机不成熟,不能冒险去做。安下心来,不会出现危险,原因在于没有违反常规。

  ①郊:距离都城五十里为近郊,百里为远郊。比喻离成功还很远,要耐心等待。②利用恒:凭借以往的经验,安下心来。利,适宜,凭借。恒,常规,从前的做法。③咎:灾祸、过失、危险。④不犯难行也:不冒险前行。犯,遭遇。难,野兽出没的林子,指危险、恐惧。⑤未失常:没有失去常规做法。未,没有,不。失常,失去常规。常,常道,常有的现象,长期认识到的自然法则。

  九二:需于沙①,小②有言③,终吉。
  象曰:需于沙,衍在中也④。虽小有言,以终吉也。
  译文
  九二:像一粒细小的沙子一样,凡事从点滴做起,但会招致一些没有见识的人的非议,可终究是吉利的。
  象曰:在沙滩上等待,就像河水顺着河道流走,做事中规中矩,没有危险性。虽然会招致一些人的非议,因为最终是吉利的。

  ①沙:沙滩。初九为郊,寓意很远,此爻为沙,离河水又近了一步。②小:卑微的人。③言:非议、訾言。④衍:河水顺着河道流走。比喻做事中规中矩。

  九三:需于泥①,致寇至②。
  象曰:需于泥,灾③在外也。自我致寇④,敬慎⑤不败也。
  译文
  九三:固执的等待,就像陷在了河边的泥巴里,不能快速行动,以致竞争对手即将到来,超过自己。
  象曰:自己陷在了泥巴里,不能快速行动,岸上的人行动自如,机会即将被别人占去,自然会给自己带来危害。机会被别人抢去,只有小心谨慎才不会失败。

  ①泥:水边泥巴。又有阻滞、固执的意思。初九为郊,九二为沙,寓意一步一步接近河水。此爻为泥,说明已经走到了岸边。②致寇至:招致强人到来。致,招致,导致。寇,强人、强盗。指有能力的竞争对手。③灾:危害,指压力。④自我:因为我。⑤敬慎:小心谨慎。敬,警戒、小心。慎,忧惧。
  辨析
  致寇至:导致对手即将到来。而不是已经到来。上卦是坎卦,坎卦是危险,喻义贼寇。
  九三爻是下卦的最上爻,紧临坎卦的最下爻,极其接近,但毕竟还没有进入坎卦,所以说是“即将到来”。而不是“已经到来”。
  此爻正符合今天的一句谚语:常在河边走,哪有不湿鞋。所以,孔子警告说,只有“敬慎”,才会“不败也”。这叫相机而动。

  六四:需①于血②,出自穴③。
  象曰:需于血,顺以听也④。
  译文
  六四:为了获得更多物质,必然流血流汗,付出艰辛。血汗是从自己身上流出来的。
  象曰:为了获得更多物质,付出了巨大的代价,理应顺天由命,不要过分要求自己。

  ①需:须,需要物质。此处的需,已经进入上卦,是付诸了具体的行动,而不是等待。②血:坎卦为血。指付出代价。形容艰辛。③出自穴:从自己的身上出来。出,流出。穴,穴位,指身体。④顺以听也:顺天由命。

  九五:需于酒食。贞吉。
  象曰:酒食贞吉,以中正也。
  译文
  九五:平时需要做的就是吃吃喝喝。适合持续下去。
  象曰:吃吃喝喝吉利,因为这是不偏不倚的纯正之道。

  上六:入于穴①。有不速之客三人来,敬之,终吉。
  象曰:不速之客来,敬之终吉。虽不当位②,未大失也。
  译文
  上六:用辛勤换来了财富。于是,来了三个意想不到的客人。热情招待他们,最后还是吉利的。
  象曰:热情招待意想不到的客人,最终吉利。虽然所处位置不恰当,毕竟还没有犯原则性错误。

  ①入于穴:说明收获。②不当位:上六阴位阴爻,由于九三相应,本身当位。为啥说不当位呢?因为爻辞说三个客人都来了,喻示下卦三个阳爻都来相应,一阴配三阳,所以说“不当位”。比喻自己的事业和财富达到了顶峰,会让很多人眼红。
  辨析
  1.入于穴:上文有“出自穴”,已经付出了代价。此处“入于穴”,说明得到了利益。穴,很多人解释为洞穴,或家中。个人认为与需卦的语境不符。
  2.不速客,既然是意想不到的客人,说明自己从来就没想着让他们来。话外之意,根本不喜欢这些人前来。这些人前来是想找麻烦的。
  3.三人来:下卦是乾卦,三爻全阳,喻示三人。此处的“三”,比喻众人,大家伙。意思是,有钱了,很多人觉得不公平,都想来讨个说法。此时,应该好言相劝,以礼相待,因此,才会“终吉”。

 

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