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《周易》第四卦,山水蒙

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    【绪言
  六十四卦第四卦,是《山水蒙》。六爻纳甲法是离宫第五卦,属火。

    第三卦是《水雷屯》,寓意小草发芽,破土而出。《水雷屯》颠倒过来,便是《山水蒙》。
  《蒙》卦,小草出生之后,像一个刚出生婴儿,正是牙牙学语懵懂求知的阶段。寓意幼小、幼稚、单纯、蒙昧、糊涂、茫然、苗头、学习、认识。

    卦象叙述方式:万事开头难,利用儿童、以及妇女来做比喻。

   【卦辞】

  卦辞:蒙①,亨②。匪③我求童蒙④,童蒙求我。初筮⑤告,再三渎⑥,渎则不告。利贞⑦。
  译文
  卦辞:蒙卦,寓意顺利成长。学生在哪一方面不懂,老师并不知道,所以,不是老师问学生,而是学生主动去问老师。来占卦问事也一样,第一次可以告诉他,一个问题反复起卦反复问,把预测当成了游戏,是不尊敬的表现,不尊敬就不告诉他。想要消除内心的疑惑,首先要行为端正,思想真诚才行。
  ①蒙:蒙卦,寓意年幼无知,迷芒。②亨:通顺。有苗不愁长,所以叫亨。③匪:不是。④童蒙:学童、无知。⑤筮:问卦。⑥渎:对人不尊敬。⑦利贞:适宜思想纯正。贞,真诚、纯贞。

  彖曰:蒙,山下有险①,险而止②,蒙。蒙亨③,以亨行时中也④。匪我求童蒙,童蒙求我,志应⑤也。初噬告,以刚中也⑥。再三渎,渎则不告,渎蒙也⑦。蒙以养正⑧,圣功也⑨。
  译文
  彖曰:所谓蒙卦,上卦为艮,代表山,下卦为坎,代表水,遇到水无法前进,所以才会感到迷茫,不知所措。蒙卦之所以通顺,是因为把握好了时机,在顺利的时候行动。不是老师求学生,而是学生主动问老师,那是因为他们的志趣相同。初次占问告诉他,是因为他的行为符合中庸之道。反复起卦反复问不告诉他,那是因为他把预测当成了儿戏。培养一个人纯正的思想品质,这是一项非常伟大而又神圣的事业。

  ①险:险要、危险。这里指水。②险而止:遇到危险,无法前进。③蒙亨:蒙卦之所以通畅。④以亨行时中也:是因为行动选择了恰当的时机。以,是因为,原因在于。行,行动。时,时机、机会。中,恰当、适当。指下卦中爻。⑤志应:志趣相应。志,心志、理想。应,应和,回应。⑥刚中:符合请教的行为准则。刚,强劲,指所作所为。中,内心,指中庸之道。⑦渎蒙:轻视教育事业。⑧蒙以养正:启蒙是为了培养纯正的思想品质。⑨圣功:值得称赞的事业。圣,伟大的。功,工作、事业。

  象曰:山下出泉①,蒙。君子以果行②育德③。
  译文:蒙卦,山脚下流出泉水,滋润大地。喻示君子要果断行动起来,才能培养出良好的品德。
  ①山下出泉:蒙卦的上卦为艮是山,下卦为坎是水。泉水流出,滋润大地,就像培养人的德性一样。②果行:果断行动。③育德:培养德性。

山水蒙.jpg

  爻辞】
  初六:发蒙①,利用刑人②,用说桎梏③。以往吝④。
  象曰:利用刑人,以正法也⑤。
  译文
  初六:启发那些不开化的山野村民,最适合让那些服刑人员现身说法,如此,才能够有效地预防犯罪。因为这是用犯人的经历和悔恨来警示大家的。
  象曰:让犯人以身说法,才能有效地彰显法律的威严性。

  ①发蒙:启发那些未开化的草民。这里不单是教育儿童,而是指天下所有黎民。②刑人:受刑之人,罪犯。③用说桎梏:让百姓避免刑具加身。用,让别人。说,通“脱”,解除、解脱。桎梏,刑具,这里指重刑犯。④以往吝:利用曾经的耻辱和悔恨(教育大家)。以,利用。往,以往。吝,悔恨、感到耻辱。⑤以正法也:因为这能彰显法律的威严性。正,突出,使之彰显威严。

  九二:包蒙①吉,纳妇②吉,子克家③。
  象曰:子克家,刚柔接也④。
  译文
  九二:宅心宽厚,能够包容不同的人的不同想法,这样做是正确的。因此,把妻子娶进家门,也要包容妻子,这样做很好。因为她能为家庭延续香火,继承家业。
  象曰:孩子能够接管家业,这说明青出于蓝而胜于蓝,代代相传。

  ①包蒙:即蒙包。指开明的人带领着蒙昧的人。初爻阴、二爻阳、三爻阴,上下阴爻把二爻包在其中。阴爻,寓意蒙昧。阳爻,寓意开明。包,包容,宽厚。引申为引领。②纳妇:有三层意思。第一,娶妻。第二,妻子娶进门,家庭多了一个新成员,要学会包容妻子。第三,男女性格不同,也要有所包容。③子克家:儿子有能力治理家业。子,儿女,特指儿子。《序卦传》有男女,然后有夫妇。有夫妇,然后有父子。这正符合蒙卦之义。克,胜任,能够。④刚柔接也:年轻有为,接替父业。初爻为阴,为年长;二爻为阳,为年轻。所以,叫刚接柔。接,接续,继承。

  六三:勿用取女①,见金夫②不有躬③。无攸利④。
  象曰:勿用娶女,行不顺也⑤。
  译文
  六三:不能娶这样的女人,见了英俊富贵的男人就没了主心骨。这种女人最终得不到什么好结果。
  象曰:不能娶这样的女人,是因为她不能谨守妇道。

  ①勿用取女:不能娶这样的女人。寓意男人娶妻,不能马马虎虎。正符合蒙卦诲人的原意。②见金夫:出现了有钱的英俊男子。见,出现。金夫,既指有钱的男人,又指阳刚的男性。③不有躬:失去身体,指失身。躬,身体。④无攸利:没有任何好处。⑤行不顺也:做法不符合伦理。行,行为、做法。顺,道理。这里指伦理、妇女的操守。

  六四:困蒙①,吝②。
  象曰:困蒙之吝,独远实也③。
  译文
  六四:思想守旧不开化,必然要遭到别人的耻笑。
  象曰:蒙昧无知,遭到别人耻笑,是因为自己在思想上远离了那些开明的朋友。

  ①困蒙:被愚昧所困扰。指守旧。困,围困。②吝:羞耻,被耻笑。③独远实也:独自远离了开明的人。独,独自。实,五爻为阳。阳爻寓意开明的人。

  六五:童蒙①,吉。
  象曰:童蒙之吉,顺以巽也②。
  译文
  六五:小孩子年幼无知,也有些成年人,大脑原本就很单纯,这都是正常现象。
  象曰:小孩子年幼无知,成年人大脑单纯,之所以他们也吉利,是因为他们能够虚心求教,不惹事生非的缘故。

  ①童蒙:小孩子不懂事。也指某些人的思想原本就单纯。②顺以巽也:遵循谦卑的德行。顺,服从、遵从。巽,谦虚、懦弱。

  上九:击蒙①,不利为寇②,利御寇③。
  象曰:利用御寇,上下顺④也。
  译文
  上九:适当惩戒那些鲁莽无知的人,以免使他们因为鲁莽而走上犯罪的道路,应该引导他们树立报效国家的思想,成为一个能以抵御外敌的英雄。
  象曰:让他们成为保卫国家的英雄,官民上下通顺。

  ①击蒙:严厉教导那些鲁莽无知的人。击,惩罚、击打。②不利为寇:不能变成一介莽夫。寇:粗暴、鲁莽。上九阳极,故为莽夫。③利御寇:(既然英勇),那就锻炼成一个抵抗外敌的英雄。寇,强盗,侵略者。④上下顺:官民通达。上,指国家政权。下,指黎民百姓。

 

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