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《周易》第三卦,水雷屯

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【绪言】

  六十四卦第三卦,是《水雷屯》。六爻纳甲是坎宫第三卦,属水。

  清气上升,为天;浊气下降,为地。有天有地,万物生发。于是,《屯》卦寓意小草萌芽,万物始生。

  《屯》卦,寓意诞生、开始、艰难、困阻、停顿、吝啬、囤积、堆积、充满。

  卦象叙述方式:用小草萌芽和出生来比喻人生。

  

【卦辞】

  卦辞:屯,元亨利贞①。勿用有攸往②,利建侯③。

  译文

  卦辞:小草破土将出之时,叫屯。春天萌芽,夏季成长,秋季收获,冬季享用,这一切顺理成章,是大吉大利的象征。但是,刚刚萌芽,其艰难程度可想而知。体现到人间,预示万事开头难。因此,在事务的开始,不要急于行动,等待时机,一定能够成就伟大的事业。

  ①元亨利贞:这里的元亨利贞与《乾为天》的元亨利贞含义不太相同。元,天地交泰,事务开始具备了元气。又寓意春天;亨,通顺,顺利成长。又寓意夏季;利,收获,适宜。又寓意秋季;贞,财富。收获之后,可以相互交易,安安分分地生活。又寓意冬季。②勿用有攸往:暂时不要有所行动。③利建侯:有利于将来成就大业。侯,君主。这里喻示伟大的事业。

  彖曰:屯,刚柔始交①而难生②,动乎险中③,大亨贞④。雷雨之动满盈⑤。天造草昧⑥,宜建侯而不宁⑦。

  译文

  彖曰:屯卦,嫩芽在土壤内萌动,刚刚触及坚硬的地表,长出地面是一个非常艰难的过程。向上生长既危险又费力,但是,一旦突破地面,就能顺利地生长起来。雷雨季节,土壤湿润,根深叶茂,到了初秋,籽粒才能饱满。植物这一切既混沌又艰难的过程,都是上天赋予的。所以,针对人事来讲,要想成就一番大事业,也像小草初生到收获一样,开始一定要经历无数的艰难和险阻。

  ①刚柔始交:嫩芽在土壤内萌动,刚刚接触到坚硬的地表。刚,指坚硬的地表。柔,指嫩芽。始,刚刚。交,接触。②难生:嫩芽破土非常艰难。生,出生。③动乎险中:在危险中生长。动,指嫩芽在土壤内伸展。④大亨贞:突破地表就能顺利地生长起来。大,形容词,表示费尽力气。亨,突破地表,顺畅。贞,继续下去。⑤雷雨之动满盈:雷声阵阵,小雨飘飘,秧苗才能茁壮成长。满,丰满,形容叶茂。盈,饱满,指籽粒饱满。⑥天造草昧:植物初生这种艰难混沌的过程是上天赐予的。⑦宜建侯而不宁:所以,创建伟大的事业之初,必然要经历艰难险阻,难以安宁。

  象曰:云雷①,屯。君子以经纶②。

  译文:云雷相叠,称为屯卦。聪明人看到乌云密布,雷声阵阵,就知道天要下雨,大地湿润,万物生长。遵循这种自然法则去处理人间事务,一定没错。

  ①云雷:《屯卦》的上卦为坎,坎为雨,为云。下卦为震,震为雷。所以,孔子称《水雷屯》为云雷。②君子以经纶:聪明人就会遵循这种天地的法则去处理事务。经,法则、常理。纶,治理。

  

水雷屯.jpg

【爻辞】  

  初九:磐桓①,利居贞,利建侯。

  象曰:虽磐桓,志行正也。以贵下贱②,大得民也。

  译文
  初九:磐石压顶,嫩芽从旁侧钻出地面。虽然屈曲而生,也利于坚持下去。将来也有利于建功立业。
  象曰:虽然嫩芽从磐石旁边长出来,这也是它的志向纯正的结果。大人物忍辱负重,委曲求全去做事,将来必得民心。

  ①磐桓:大石覆盖,嫩芽从旁侧长出。磐,大石头。桓,草芽屈曲而生。②以贵下贱:高贵的人做下贱的事。

  六二:屯如①邅如②,乘马③班如④。匪寇⑤婚媾⑥,女子贞⑦不字⑧,十年乃字⑩。
  象曰:六二之难,乘刚也。十年乃字,反常也!
  译文
  六二:嫩芽从石缝中长出来,屈曲生长,没有方向,没有次序,如同四匹马拉一辆车一样,步子不能保持一致。强盗强行与之成婚,女子刚烈,决心不与之同床。一直到十年之后,才怀孕生子。
  象曰:上有磐石,从哪里破土而出,左右不定。由于这种犹豫不决的心态,十年之后才怀孕生子。这违反了常理!

  ①屯如:初九造成这样的艰难环境。如,指初九带来的不利。②邅如:左右不定。邅,读zhān。如,状态,现状。③乘马:四匹马拉一辆车。④班如:不整齐,混乱的状态。班,古字象形是指小草从石缝中长出,这里指不整齐,相互分开。如,状态,样子。⑤匪寇:土匪、强盗。⑥婚媾:结婚,并交合。⑦贞:贞洁,刚烈。⑧字:嫁人,并交合。⑩字:生育。
  辨析六二
  1.“屯如邅如,乘马班如”两句,仍然是在描述小草出生的状态,为下面的婚嫁话题做铺垫,打比方。
  2.匪寇婚媾,匪,很多人解释同“非”,否定词。按照这种解释,全句话意思:“不是强盗来就求婚。”如果是这样,这句话是废话。不是强盗何必提到强盗?再说,既然不是强盗来求婚,女子缘何不嫁?前后文句不通。
  3.女子贞,是说女子的性情纯贞刚烈。
  4.不字,不愿意与自己没有感情的人结婚。古人娶妻之后,要在妻子身上写字。说“不字”,就是不愿意让男方在自己身上写字。换句话说,就是不满意这桩婚事。
  5.十年乃字,是说时间长了,慢慢也就认了,才怀孕生子。
  6.前后两个“字”,含义相近,但意思不同。第一个“字”,本义指男女交合,怀孕生子,后引申为嫁人。不愿意让男方在自己身上写字,顺理推之,也就更不愿意与之交合。第二个“字”,指生育。
  7.通览六二,详细解释:地面有石头,嫩芽无法破土而出,只得委曲求全,慢慢地从旁边长出来。小草从旁边长出来,必然耗费时间,而且外形不规则,横七竖八,就像四匹马拉车,有的向前,有的停顿,有的在左,有的在右。这一切都说明在困难面前,让人犹豫不决,混乱不知所措。是什么造成的?就是一块石头压在头顶造成的。体现在人类社会,强盗就是那块磐石,他强行与一个刚烈的女子成婚,导致这个女子决心不与他在一起生活。然而,随着时间的推移,十几年之后,这个女子也就认命了。于是,才怀孕生子。这也是中国几千年男尊女卑,嫁鸡随鸡的真实写照。
  8.孔子最为推崇“男尊女卑”思想,所以,当他发现这个女子十几年后才怀孕生子,批断说“十年乃字,反常也!”

  六三:即鹿①无虞②,惟入于林中。君子几③,不如舍④。往吝⑤。
  象曰:既鹿无虞,以纵⑥禽⑦也。君子舍之,往吝穷⑧也。
  译文
  六三:前去捕鹿,事先没有做好准备,只会盲目地进入林子深处。君子察觉到了不利的苗头,不如暂时放弃追赶。再往林子里追,可能会带来危险。
  象曰:没有准备去捕鹿,这只能是自己放走了禽兽。聪明的人只有舍弃不追,再往远处追,就会出现危险。因为林子深处可能迷失方向。

  ①即鹿:追捕鹿。即,接近,延伸为追捕。②无虞:没有准备、没有料到。③几:察觉。④舍:放弃。⑤吝:耻辱,危险。⑥纵:放纵。⑦禽:兽。《白虎通》禽,鸟兽总名。吴正道曰:禽即兽也。⑧穷:止境。这里引申为陌生环境,迷失方向。

  六四:乘马班如,求婚媾。往吉,无不利。
  象曰:求而往,明①也。
  译文
  六四:坐着马车还在左右徘徊,适合大胆地去求婚。去了就吉利,没有任何害处。
  象曰:有打算就去追求,这是聪明人的选择。

  ①明:明察。

  九五:屯其膏①。小贞②吉,大贞③凶。
  象曰:屯其膏,施未光④也。
  译文
  九五:不舍得把好处给别人。这样的人,占问小事没什么,占问大事一定凶。
  象曰:把钱财米面都囤积在自己家中,不舍得广施恩惠,也就难以换来光耀的身份。

  ①膏:肥油。借指恩惠,润泽。②小贞:占问小事。贞,占卜。③大贞:占问大事。④施未光:没有广施恩惠,也就没有荣耀的身份。施,给予。未,没有。光,光荣、荣誉。

  上六:乘马班如,泣血涟①如。
  象曰:泣血涟如,何可长也②?
  译文
  上六:左右徘徊,茫然无措,恸哭不已,泪流不止。
  象曰:不停地哭泣,看来不会长久了。

  ①涟:泪流不止。②何可长也:怎么会长久呢?寓意即将灭亡。

 

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