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《周易》第一卦,乾为天

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  【绪言】

  六十四卦第一卦,是《乾为天》。六爻纳甲法是乾宫第一卦,属金。

  《乾》卦,寓意开创、创造、发明、奋斗、付出。天施地生,于是,下一卦是《坤为地》。

  卦象叙述方式:利用龙从海底飞到空中的整个过程来模拟人生。

   【卦辞】
  卦辞:乾为天,元①,亨②,利③,贞④。
  译文:乾卦,代表天。天为第一,为初始,为开创,为永久,为交泰,为通顺,为适宜,为好处,为坚贞,为端正。
  ①元:第一,根本。②亨,交泰、通达。③利:适合,有益。④贞:坚持下去,持久。

  彖曰:大哉乾元,万物资始①,乃统天②。云行雨施,品物③流形④。大明⑤始终,六位⑥时成⑦,时乘⑧六龙⑨以御天⑩。乾道变化,各正性命⑪,保合大和⑫,乃利贞。首出⑬庶物⑭,万国⑮咸宁⑯。
  译文:至高无上的天,是开创万物的根本,并且主宰着一年四季的寒暑变化。布云施雨,赋予天下万物各种形态。太阳南北运行,有始有终。六个不同的日出方位,从而形成了春夏秋冬。每一季节的形成,六个位置升起的太阳就像凭借着六条龙而体现着天体的运行。天道有规律地变化,万物按照各自的特性延续着自己的生命,如此,才能繁衍适应天下环境,适合生活下去。天创造了一切,万事万物才得以安宁下来。
  ①万物资始:万物资生的本源。②乃统天:并且主宰着四季更替。天,季节。③品物:万物。特指自然界不同的物种。④流形:赋予形态。流,显现、流露。⑤大明:专指太阳。⑥六位:春秋,太阳从卯乙升起。冬天,太阳从辰巽升起。夏季,太阳寅甲升起。⑦时成:形成了季节。⑧时乘:四季凭借着。⑨六龙:比喻从寅甲卯乙辰巽六个位置升起的太阳。⑩以御天:即“以天御”,是天的主宰。⑪各正性命:分别按照自己的特性去适应环境。正,遵照、按照;性,本性、特性;命,生存、生命。⑫保合大和:即“大和保合”。顺应天道,得以滋养生息。保:滋养、繁衍。合:适应、交融。大和,顺应天道。大,大环境;和,顺应。⑬首出:天下首先生出来。⑭庶物:万物,这里指动物赖以生存的所有食物。⑮万国:所有地域。这里指天下所有生物。⑯咸宁:都安宁下来。

  象曰:天行健,君子以自强不息。
  译文:有志向的人也要像天那样,勇往直前,奋发向上,自强不息,永不停止。

乾为天.jpg

  爻辞】
  初九:潜龙,勿用。
  象曰:潜龙勿用,阳在下也。
  译文:
  初九:比喻一条潜伏在水底的龙。暂时不要行动,只有卧薪尝胆,等待时机。
  象曰:即使你是一条龙,暂时也不要行动,因为阳爻在卦的最下方。

  九二:见龙在田,利见大人。
  象曰:见龙在田,德施普也。
  译文:
  九二:这条龙出现在田野里,此时适宜大人物出现,也适宜觐见大人物。
  象曰:因为这条龙出现在田野里,他的恩德能够普惠四方。

  九三:君子终日乾乾①,夕惕若无咎。

  象曰:终日乾乾,反复道④也。
  译文:
  九三:君子整天努力不懈。即使到了夜晚,也像是预感到了危险一样,如此
警惕,才不会有错。

  象曰:白天辛勤工作,因为日出而作,日入而息。这才能适应天的法则,达到保合太和。
  ①终日乾乾:整天忙忙碌碌。乾,奋斗。乾乾,就是勤勤恳恳,努力奋斗。②夕惕若:即使到了晚上,也不敢松懈,总是担心危险降临。夕惕,晚上警惕。
厉:磨炼、危险。④反复道:日复一日地遵循天的法则。

  九四:或跃在渊,无咎。
  象曰:或跃在渊,进无咎也。
  译文:
  九四:是飞向空中,还是潜伏在水底?要根据时局变化,知进知退,才不至于犯错误。
  象曰:到底是进还是退呢?告诉你,前进没有错。

  九五:飞龙在天,利见大人。
  象曰:飞龙在天,大人造也。
  译文:
  九五:龙腾飞于天空,大展宏图,适宜大人物出现,也适宜觐见大人物。
  象曰:龙腾飞于天空,因为这是大人物的造化。

  上九:亢龙有悔。
  象曰:亢龙有悔,盈不可久也。
  译文:
  上九:飞得太高,走得太远,迷失了方向,必然给自己带来悔恨。
  象曰:亢龙有悔。因为做事过分,不可能保持长久不衰。所以,做人要学会当进则进,当退则退。

  用九①:见群龙②无首③,吉。

  象曰:用九,天德④不可为首⑤也。

  译文
  用九:六个阳爻全部发动,就像六条龙飞到了空中,自由翱翔。群龙和睦相处,没有贵贱之分,当然吉利。
  象曰:群龙自由腾飞,没有贵贱差别,这是天的品德。
  ①用九:在六十四卦中,《乾》卦第一,代表天,附有“用九”;《坤卦》第二,代表地,附有“用六”。其余卦象则无此条。所谓用,是使用、用到、派上用场的意思。所谓九,在八卦中,凡属于阳爻,均以九表示。《乾卦》六个爻全是阳性,所以,叫用九。
  《乾卦》附加一个用九,有三层含义。第一,当《乾卦》的六个爻全动时,阳爻变阴爻,就成了《坤卦》。第二,说明天地关系相互依存,是不可分离的。第三,《乾卦》为天,附加一个用九,寓意天外有天。也就是说,在这个世界上,不只是人类所认知的一个时空。
  《易经》是研究人类生存的一门学问,是讲给人类的,而不是解释整个宇宙的。所以,宇宙到底还有多少个时空与我们并存,《易经》只是以用九做为提示,并没有进行详细解释。人类崇尚唯物主义,认为亲眼看到的,就是真实存在的。看不到就是不存在的。通过乾坤两卦的提示,宇宙远远没有这么简单!

    其实,人类视觉都是被限定在一定认知范围内的,视觉即使不是假象,也是被限定的固象,所以,视觉会骗过人类的大脑,从而做出错误的判断。

  ②群龙:三为群,六条龙自然为群龙。即六个阳爻。
  ③无首:分不出来第一。首,首领、第一。为什么无首?乾卦六爻全阳,预示刚健向上。一旦用九,那就变成了《坤卦》,《坤卦》六爻全阴,预示温顺向下。温顺向下,就是谦虚谨慎,自然没有贵贱之分,自然也就吉利了。
  ④天德:天的品德。
  ⑤不可为首:不能显示谁占第一。提示我们,做人不要傲慢。如果真想做第一,那你真有可能导致“无首”(无头)。

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