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以庚定伏,探究三伏天闷热的原因

天象观星 昌达空间 1092℃ 0评论

     “夏至三庚数头伏,立秋头庚末伏起。”三伏以“庚日”为起始,是有一定的道理的。我们先来认识一下“庚”。
  庚,在天干的第七位,与“更”相通,具有更新、突破、创新、改变的含义。方位,代表西方;时间,代表秋季;状态,代表肃杀。庚又代表枢纽、转折、结束。
  谚语有:“逢庚必变”。此针对天气而言。久不下雨,逢庚日可能降雨;久雨不晴,逢庚日可能放晴。
  庚的属性为金,原义是脱谷的铁器,因此,象征兵器、利刃、凶器。喻示蛮横、暴力、刚强、战争、杀戮、刑法,故有白虎之称。
  庚,又指太白金星。早晨,太白金星出现在天空的东方,叫启明星。晚上出现在天空的西方,叫长庚。当金星处于地球与太阳中间时,遮挡了部分阳光,这叫金星凌日。据说,金星凌日之时,地球上可能爆发灾难,或出现某种重大变化。
  预测婚姻,庚为男方;预测案件,庚为凶犯;奇门断应期,以庚上之年月日时来决断。
  庚,处于天干的第七位,7数的意义。

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  太阳的移动一纬度,需要3.8天。移动七纬度,大约需要27天。
  一纬度约等于地面110公里。七纬度相当于运行了800公里。也就是说,七纬度相当于太阳在27天内移动800公里,地域气温就会出现明显变化。
  夏至到第二个庚日的末日,间隔天数最少不低于20天,最多也不超过29天,大约是27天。也就是说,27天太阳大约运行了7度。
  夏至前27天,太阳向北半球移动7度;夏至后27天,太阳开始向南半球移动7度。这种来回重复地照射,地表及建筑物吸收了大量的热。在此之后的40天内,,地下湿气上升,天上热气下降,特别是中伏期间,湿热之气在地面碰撞抵消,以致阴阳两气升而不升,降而不降,因此,中伏天温度达到了极致,闷热难耐。物极必反,这也正是天气转凉的起点。
  可以看出,太阳从一个节气运行到下一个节气,跨越纬度是7°,时间大约是27天。
  初伏,夏至后第三个庚日开始,总计10天;中伏,又一个庚日开始,10天。如果夏至到立秋有五个庚日,那么,中伏20天;末伏,立秋后的第一个庚日开始,总计10天。
  一个庚日与下一个庚日相距10天。每逢庚日,气温就会有变化。所以,庚为枢纽,具有改变的意思。
  
附录
  三伏天,中原地区没有太阳直射现象。
  太阳直射点最北在北回归线上。中国广东、海南等少部分地区在北回归线以南,存在太阳直射现象,其它大部分地区都在北回归线以北的北温带,因此,中原地区没有太阳直射现象。
  广东花都区恰好在北纬23°的北回归线上,到了夏至日,太阳直射花都区,也就是太阳在头顶向下直射。次日,太阳便调转了方向,开始向南移动。
  河南郑州处于北纬35°左右,属于北温带,太阳永远也不会在头顶直射。所以说,三伏现象只适用于华北、华中地区。华南沿海地区属于热带,用三伏来描述气温特征不甚明显。

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