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质疑《推背图》之九 金朝历史

笑看推背图 昌达空间 1488℃ 0评论

    金朝和南宋同一时期在中国版图上出现。当时,南宋的统治面积约200多万平方公里,人口约6000余万;金朝的统治面积约300多万平方公里,人口4470余万。可以说,金国是当时中国华北地区的一个强大政权,其全盛时代的统治范围为:东北到日本海、黑龙江流域一带;西北到河套地区;西边接壤西夏;南边以秦岭到淮河一线与南宋交界。但是,李淳风和袁天罡的《推背图》却没有详细描述。或许,金朝是女真族建立,辽国是契丹族建立,在大汉族观念里,都不被不认可。
  《推背图》第二十一象,谶语说:“空厥宫中(北宋首都汴梁被掠夺)雪深三尺(事情发生在冬季)吁嗟元首(可怜北宋皇帝啊)南辕北辙(赵构渡河南逃,宋徽宗和宋钦宗被押往北方)”。

    颂语说:“妖氛未靖不康宁(靖康年间,金国南犯中原)北扫烽烟望帝京(北方金国的侵略战火蔓延到大宋的首都)异姓立朝终国位(赵家的天下,被断送在傀儡皇帝张邦昌的手里)卜世三六又南行(前往南方还有赵家的天下)
  这一象中,虽然没有直接提及金朝事迹,但北宋的灭亡缘于金国的征伐。“宫中”财物因何“空”?是金国侵略造成的。侧面可以看到金国的影子。
  无论金朝、辽国,还是南宋,都是中国的地盘。李袁本是唐朝初期二位高瞻远瞩的高人。可惜在《推背图》一书中却显得目光短浅,缺乏放眼世界的雄才伟略!
  难道《推背图》一书不是李袁所写?
  
金朝概说
  金朝(1115-1234),是中国历史上女真族建立的王朝。女真族,上古时称“肃慎”,公元2至4世纪称“挹娄”,公元5世纪称“勿吉”,公元6至7世纪称“黑水靺鞨”,公元9世纪,辽国灭掉靺鞨人建立的渤海国政权后,黑水靺鞨就改称女真,又称“女直”,他们是“满族”的前身。女真人很早就生活在长白山和黑龙江流域,过着以渔猎为主的氏族部落生活。
  完颜阿骨打(1068—1123年),金朝的创建者。其人力大无比,酷爱骑射,为人大度,颇具组织领导才能。23岁时已开始披挂上阵,指挥大军,显示出了卓越的政治和军事才华。1113年,完颜阿骨打继任女真部落联盟的酋长,统一了女真各部,壮大了女真的力量。为了反抗辽国的压迫,辽天庆四年(公元1114年)九月,完颜阿骨打率部誓师于涞流河(今黑龙江与吉林省间拉林河)畔,向辽朝的契丹统治者宣战,取得宁江(今吉林扶余县东南的五家站)大捷和出河店大捷,打败10万辽军。次年1月28日,建国称帝,国号大金,年号“收国”。金朝建国后,巩固了女真族的奴隶制度,也鼓舞了女真族彻底战胜辽国的决心。
  金朝共三个都城。上京会宁府(今黑龙江阿城南白城镇)是金朝第一个都城、1153年海陵王迁都燕京(今北京)是金朝第二个都城,称金中都、金国第八位皇帝宣宗于1214年迁都汴京(今开封)。
  收国元年(1115年)十一月,辽天祚帝在护步答冈(今黑龙江省五常西)会战中大败。随后,金军展开以辽五京为战略目标的灭辽之战。攻取五京的前后步骤是东京(今辽宁辽阳)、上京(今内蒙古巴林左旗南)、中京(今内蒙古宁城西大名城)、西京(今山西大同)、南京(今北京)。攻破五京后,辽朝随即灭亡。之后,与北宋遂成敌国。金太宗完颜晟挟灭辽之威,很快向南进攻,于天会五年(1127年)灭亡北宋,俘获宋钦宗。1127年,宋朝后人赵构在黄河以南建立南宋,金与南宋多次交兵,南攻与北伐,均无力改变南北对峙的局面。
  金与南宋、西夏并立期间,迫使西夏臣附、南宋屈辱求和,始终维持其霸主地位。但是,随着蒙古的兴起,金的强国地位受到了威胁。金蒙世仇,结怨甚深,蒙古人对金“怨入骨髓”。金西北邻蒙古,西邻西夏,南邻南宋,处于西、西北、南三战之地,战略地位有明显的弱势。金朝统治者却错误地选择了绝夏、攻宋、抗蒙的战略,以致三面树敌,自我孤立。金为减轻压力,从中都迁都汴京,采取弃北图南的战略,进攻南宋,企图挹彼注兹,失之于蒙而获利于宋,于是“南开宋,西启夏侮,兵力既分,功不补患”。结果,金北方尽失于蒙,南方受挫于宋,国土日蹙,国力日衰,在蒙宋夹击之下,“遂至失国”。
  金共历九帝,前后120年。疆域盛时北达今外兴安岭,南抵淮河,东临于海,西至陕西,人口4470余万。国土面积大约超过了300万平方公里,当时南宋的国土面积大约200多万平方公里。
  天兴二年(公元1234年),蒙古军与宋军联合进攻下,金朝灭亡。后金,中国清朝的师祖。
  

金朝(1115-1234)
  女真族生活在黑龙江一带,鱼猎为生。辽国(契丹)统治期间,官吏鱼肉百姓,长期向女真人索要珍珠、海东青,不堪重负,在完颜阿骨打的带领下,统一女真各部,推翻辽政权,建立了金国。
  公元1121年,灭辽;1127年,灭北宋。金国历经金世宗“大定之治”,金章宗的“明昌之治”,国力鼎盛。后至1234年,被南宋、蒙古联军所灭。
  1.金太祖完颜阿骨打(1115-1123),在位8年。
  太祖姓完颜(1068-1123),名阿骨打。1115年称帝,建立金国。建国后,多次打败辽军,攻下西京(今大同),南京(今北京)。灭辽战争同时,阿骨打进行社会改革:改革地方行政单位,建立奴隶主贵族统治;对新征服的地区实行安抚政策;确立新法制;创造女真文字。死于1123年,时年56岁。
  2.金太宗完颜吴乞买(1123-1135),在位12年
  太宗完颜吴乞买(1123-1135),汉名晟。完颜阿骨打的老四兄弟。即位后,继续进行灭辽战争,1125年,消灭辽朝。开始进攻宋,1126年,攻下汴京,北宋亡,俘虏宋徽宗和宋钦宗。在位期间,太宗为政清廉。死于1135年,时年61岁。
  《推背图》第二十一象曾提及金太宗攻克北宋首都汴梁,俘虏北宋皇帝宋徽宗和宋钦宗,掠夺大量财物。
  3.金熙宗(1135-1149),在位14年
  熙宗完颜合刺(1119-1149),父允峻。即位后,进行政治改革:采用汉官制;废除伪齐国;统一法制;创造“女真小子”。1149年,被完颜亮(海陵王)杀死,时年31岁。
  4.海陵王(1149-1161),在位12年
  海陵王,完颜迪古乃(1122-1161),汉名亮。辽王完颜宗干第二子。在熙宗改革的基础上,进一步进行改革:加强中央集权;迁都燕京,加速汉化。但海陵王极其好色。纵欲贪淫,1161年,被部将所杀,时年40岁。
  5.金世宗(1161-1189),在位29年
  世宗完颜乌禄(1123-1189),汉名褒,后改名雍。太祖孙,父完颜宗尧。即位后,镇压了契丹族起义,与南宋修好,着手进行改革:整顿吏治;奖励农桑。世宗被成为“小尧舜”。死于1189年,时年67岁。
  6.金章宗(1189-1208),在位19年
  章宗完颜麻达葛(1168-1208),金世宗孙,父完颜允恭。即位后,废除奴隶制,完成封建制的建立。使人口增长,府库充实。死于1208年,时年41岁。
  7.金卫绍王(1208-1213),在位5年
  卫绍王,完颜永济(1153-1213),金世宗第七子。“柔弱鲜智能”,政治日益腐败。此时蒙古迅速强盛,多次打败金军。卫绍王死于1213年,时年61岁。
  8.金宣宗(1213-1223),在位12年
  宣宗(1163-1223),本名吾睹补,父完颜允恭。即位后与蒙古媾和。大量发行钞票,造成金国经济濒于崩溃。虽有励精图治之志,但无拨乱反正之才。死于1224年,时年61岁。
  9.金哀宗(1223-1234),在位11年
  哀宗(1198-1234),完颜宁甲速,又名守礼,宣宗第三子。即位后,与南宋“通好”,集中力量抗蒙,但无力扭转败局。1234年,蒙古联宋攻金,哀宗自缢身亡,时年37岁,金亡。
  10.金末帝完颜承麟(1234)
  末帝是完颜宗室的后代,相貌出众,身材魁伟,有将略,善骑射,在战乱中的金哀宗末世,逐渐显露头角,深为哀宗守绪赏识。完颜承麟是金代最后一位皇帝,也是在位时间最短的皇帝。

 

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