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探索“太极生两仪两仪生四象四象生八卦”之原理

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    先看看古籍是怎么说的。
   《系辞·上》第五章:“是故,易有太极,是生两仪,两仪生四象,四象生八卦。”

   《周易正义》对上句话作了进一步解释:   

    夫“有”必始於“无”,故太极生两仪也。太极者,“无”称之称,不可得而名,取“有”之所极,况之太极者也。
 [疏]正义曰:太极谓天地未分之前,元气混而为一,即是太初、太一也。故《老子》云:“道生一。”即此太极是也。又谓混元既分,即有天地,故曰“太极生两仪”,即《老子》云:“一生二”也。不言天地而言两仪者,指其物体,下与四象相对,故曰两仪,谓两体容仪也。
    按:太极,天地未分的混沌时期,大则无外,小则无内。阴阳二炁氤氲和合,始生两仪。两仪生四象,四象生八卦。

    老子说:“道生一,一生二,二生三,三生万物。”所谓道,是宇宙本就具有的自然之道,那么,是谁创立了“道”?这是古圣贤人,以及近代的科学家不断探究的课题。或说,宇宙来源永远是人类无法破解的奥秘;所谓一,是太极;所谓二,是两仪;所谓三,是天地人。有了天地人,万物则生生不息。

   《系辞·下》第十一章:“天地絪缊,万物化醇;男女构精,万物化生。”

   《说卦传》第十章

     乾,天也,故称乎父;坤,地也,故称乎母。

     震,(坤)一索而得男,故谓之长男;巽,(乾)一索而得女,故谓之长女;坎,(乾)再索而得男,故谓之中男;离,(坤)再索而得女,故谓之中女;艮,(坤)三索而得男,故谓之少男;兑,(乾)三索而得女,故谓之少女。

   《周易正义》对上句话作了进一步解释:

     [疏]正义曰:此一节说乾坤六子,明父子之道。王氏云:“索,求也。以乾坤为父母而求其子也”。得父气者为男,得母气者为女。
     坤初,求得乾气为震,故曰长男;坤二,求得乾气为坎,故曰中男;坤三,求得乾气为艮,故曰少男。
     乾初,求得坤气为巽,故曰长女;乾二,求得坤气为离,故曰中女;乾三,求得坤气为兑,故曰少女。

     按:《系辞》明明说:“易有太极,是生两仪,两仪生四象,四象生八卦。”可见,八卦来源于“四象”,而非乾坤的“一索……再索…….三索……”。诚然,六子卦源于“乾坤”(父母),那么,乾坤又是怎么来的? 
    关于八卦的形成原因,《系辞》与《说卦传》自相矛盾。这可能是圣贤之疏忽,或是出自多人之手。 
 
 

11.jpg

阳仪和阴仪
    阳仪用“⚊”表示,表示天,父,万物资始;
    阴仪用“⚋”表示,表示地,母,万物资生。
    阳仪和阴仪是宇宙组成的最基本元素,是万物生生不息的基础。正所谓:“一阴一阳谓之道。”
 
四象的形成
   “天地絪缊,万物化醇。”       
    阴仪“⚋”交于阳仪“⚊”,生老阳“⚌”、少阴“⚍”;
    阳仪“⚊”交于阴仪“⚋”,生老阴“⚏”、少阳“⚎”。

乾坤的形成
   “男女媾精,万物化生。”
   阴仪“⚋”交于老阳“⚌”,生“☰”乾卦;
   阳仪“⚊”交于老阴“⚏”,生“☷”坤卦。

 

六子卦的形成
   《序卦传》开篇即说:“有天地,然后万物生焉。”

    1.《周易正义》的推法:
    乾卦初爻得阴仪,生“☴”巽卦;乾卦中爻得阴仪,生“☲”离卦;乾卦上爻得阴仪,生“☱”兑卦;
    坤卦初爻得阳仪,生“☳”震卦;坤卦中爻得阳仪,生“☵”坎卦;坤卦上爻得阳仪,生“☶”艮卦。

 

2.本人根据《系辞》“四象生八卦”说法:
(注:乾坤的来源,已在上面推理)
   “☰”上交“⚋”,生“☱”兑卦;
   “☰”中交“⚋”,生“☲”坎卦;
   “☰”中上交“⚏”,生“☳”艮卦。
 
   “☷”上交“⚊”,生“☶”震卦;
   “☷”中交“⚊”,生“☵”离卦;
   “☷”中上交“⚌”,生“☴”兑卦。
 
见下图:

12.jpg
关于“太极生两仪,两仪生四象,四象生八卦”关系图(上图)

    很多人把此图划分为两组:阴仪一组、阴仪一组。并用箭头标示,阳仪生出老阳和少阴;阴仪生出老阴和少阳……等等,其实,这是违背易理的,

  《系辞》曾说:“是故,刚柔相摩,八卦相荡。” 意思是说,阴阳二炁相互渗透,相互移动。又说:“男女构精,万物化生。”阴阳是不可能分离的。俗话说:孤阴不生,独阳不长。鳏夫不可能延续香火,寡妇不可能生育后代。

13.jpg

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